Friday, December 24, 2021

Accessibility Features in Microsoft Office Starter 2010 [MS]

Microsoft Office Starter 2010 includes features that make the software accessible to a wider range of users, including those who have limited dexterity, low vision, or other disabilities.

Note: For information about using accessibility featurs in Windows, see Use Windows to make your Office experience accessible.

What do you want to do?

Keyboard shortcuts

You can use the keyboard to perform most tasks.

Show or hide some keyboard shortcuts in ScreenTips

Using the keyboard

  1. Press ALT+F, I to open the Word Options or Excel Options dialog box.

  2. Press DOWN ARROW to select Advanced, and then press the TAB key to move to the Advanced options… pane.

  3. Press the TAB key repeatedly until you select Show shortcut keys in ScreenTips under Display.

  4. Press SPACEBAR to select or clear the check box.

Using the mouse

  1. Click the File tab.

  2. Under Word or under Excel, click Options.

  3. Click Advanced.

  4. Under Display, clear the Show shortcut keys in ScreenTips check box.

Important: Changing this setting will affect all of your Microsoft Office programs.

For more information about using the keyboard, see the following articles:

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Set size and zoom options

Zoom in on, or out of a document

You can zoom in to get a close-up view of your document or zoom out to see more of the page at a reduced size.

Using the keyboard

  1. Press F6 until the status bar is in focus.

  2. Press the TAB key repeatedly until Zoom level is in focus.

  3. Press ENTER to open the Zoom dialog box.

  4. Press the TAB key until the Percent box is selected, and then type a percentage or press UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW to select a percentage.

Using the mouse

  1. At the bottom of the window, click and drag the Zoom slider, or type a percentage in the Percent box.

Zoom by using the Microsoft IntelliMouse pointing device or other pointing device

  1. Click the document.

  2. Press and hold CTRL while you rotate the wheel button to zoom in or out.

For more information, see the instructions for your pointing device.

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Change the color of text

Using the keyboard

  1. Select the text that you want to change.

  2. Press ALT+H, F, C.

  3. Use the arrow keys to select the color that you want, and then press ENTER.

Using the mouse

  1. Select the text that you want to change.

  2. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do one of the following:

    • To apply the color most recently used for text, click Font Color.

    • To apply a different color, click the arrow next to the Font Color button, and then select the color that you want.

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Collect and paste items between Office Starter programs

Collect items to paste

Using the keyboard

  1. Make sure that the Microsoft Office Clipboard task pane is open.

    How?

    • Press ALT+H, and then press F, O.

  2. Press F6 repeatedly until you have moved to the document, and then select the first item that you want to copy.

  3. Press CTRL+C to copy the item.

  4. Continue copying items from documents in any Office program until you collect all of the items that you want (up to 24).

Using the mouse

  1. Make sure that the Microsoft Office Clipboard task pane is open.

    How?

    • On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Clipboard Dialog Box Launcher.
      Dialog box launcher

  2. Select the first item that you want to copy.

  3. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.

  4. Continue copying items from documents in any Office program until you collect all of the items that you want (up to 24).

Paste collected items in Office Starter

Using the keyboard

  1. Open Word Starter or Excel Starter.

  2. Make sure that the Microsoft Office Clipboard task pane is open.

    How?

    • Press ALT+H, and then press F, O.

    • Press F6 repeatedly until you have moved to the document, and then place the cursor where you want to paste the items.

    • Press F6 to move to the Microsoft Office Clipboard task pane.

    • Do one of the following:

      • To paste items one at a time, on the Microsoft Office Clipboard task pane, press DOWN ARROW to highlight the item that you want to paste, and then press ENTER.

      • To paste all the items that you copied, press the TAB key repeatedly until Paste All is selected, and then press ENTER.

      • Press ESC to return to the document.

Using the mouse

  1. Open Word Starter or Excel Starter.

  2. Make sure that the Microsoft Office Clipboard task pane is open.

    How?

    • On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Clipboard Dialog Box Launcher.
      Dialog box launcher

  3. Click where you want to paste the items.

  4. Do one of the following:

    • To paste items one at a time, on the Office Clipboard, click the item that you want to paste, and then press ENTER.

    • To paste all the items that you copied, click Paste All.

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Learn about new or updated accessibility features

Microsoft Office Starter 2010 continues the dedication to both making Microsoft Office products more available to people with disabilities, in addition to helping all users create more accessible content. In addition to many features that you might be familiar with, Office Starter 2010 includes several new and updated accessibility features.

Microsoft Office Backstage View

One of the more obvious changes in Office 2010 is that actions previously found on the File menu or Microsoft Office Button can now be found in the Microsoft Office Backstage view. This is where you will find the tools that you use to do things to a whole file, instead of to the content that it contains, such as Print and Save. By displaying more space and providing more detail about available commands, accessibility-conscious users will have more context and information about how to use commands. In addition, by taking advantage of more screen space, commands are more logically presented in the user interface.

Microsoft Fluent user interface (ribbon)

Office 2010 has applied the Fluent user interface, or the ribbon, to all Office applications, providing a consistent look across applications. Additionally, to aid users who move through the ribbon by using their keyboard, it is now possible to jump to the different sections of a ribbon tab (called Groups) by pressing CTRL+RIGHT ARROW or CTRL+LEFT ARROW on a ribbon tab to move to the next/previous Group.

Accessibility Checker

Office Starter includes an Accessibility Checker to help you create more accessible content. Accessibility Checker runs automatically while you author your file, identifying areas that might make it challenging for users who have disabilities to view or use it. Through the Accessibility Checker task pane, opened from the Backstage view, you can review and fix potential problems with your content.

To learn more about how this new feature works, see Accessibility Checker.

Other improvements

  • It is now possible to add a description to tables, images, shapes, etc. This description is similar to a second level of Alt text, and helps authors describe complex content to readers with disabilities or other needs who may read the document.

  • Press ALT+F10 in Word Starter or Excel Starter to open the selection pane that makes it easier to select floating objects in your file.

  • Keyboard shortcuts have been added so you can rotate and re-size shapes in your file.

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Use dual displays with Chromebox - Google Meet hardware Help [gg-meethardware-en]

Use dual displays with Chromebox

No matter how large your monitor, it can become cramped as you add more participants to a meeting. Attach a second monitor to your Chromebox to make sure everyone can see everyone else (and their documents).

Add a second screen

To add a second screen, simply plug a second display in to your Chromebox display port. The Chromebox automatically recognizes and adds the second monitor as a secondary display. 

During a video meeting:

  • The primary (main) screen displays a background image, the meeting details, and the "filmstrip" thumbnails of meeting participants. The primary screen also shows the active speaker, although you can also pin a specific speaker to the monitor (so they are always shown).
  • The secondary screen displays an image of the local room. This switches to a person who is presenting, or to the active speaker (if a specific attendee is "pinned" to the primary screen). 

Use dual displays

Note: Currently, dual displays are not supported with the Chromebase.

When you first start a meeting

No setup is necessary. On the primary monitor, use the remote control to join a video meeting .

  • The primary (main) screen displays the meeting details, a "filmstrip" of meeting participants, and the active speaker.
  • The secondary screen displays an image of the local room.

Using the remote control

The remote control interacts with the primary screen, not the secondary screen.

If a person is presenting

The active speaker appears on the primary screen, and the document being presented appears on the secondary screen. For details, see Present to a video meeting.

Pin a participant to the primary screen

Use the remote to select a participant and pin them to the primary screen. Their image stays on the screen, no matter who else is speaking or presenting. The secondary screen shows either the person actively speaking or the document being presented.

Note: If only one participant is in the meeting, they are pinned to both screens.

Related topics

Access your OneDrive files [MS]

In Teams for personal and small business use, you have direct and easy access to everything in your OneDrive. Your OneDrive files remain private until you share them. You can change file permissions or stop sharing directly in OneDrive.

Note: This feature is currently available on Teams for iOS and Android.

To access your OneDrive files, select the Files tab, then select OneDrive

Share a file 

To share a file:

  1. Select the Files tab.

  2. Select OneDrive.

  3. Browse to the directory for the file you want to share.

  4. Select More  More options button next to the file you want to share.

  5. Select Share  Teams Android share icon.

  6. Select the chat to which you wish to share the file. OneDrive will generate a link to the file.

  7. Select the Send button  Send button to share the link to the chat.

Get a link to a file 

To share a link to a OneDrive file: 

  1. Select the Files tab.

  2. Select OneDrive.

  3. Browse to the directory for the file for which you want to get a link.

  4. Select More  More options button next to the file.

  5. Select Copy Link  Copy link button.

  6. OneDrive will generate a link, which is automatically copied to your device's clipboard.

File Storage in Teams

When you share files or files are shared with you in chat, those files will automatically be added to your OneDrive. 

To find shared files:

  1. Select the Files tab.

  2. Select OneDrive.

  3. Select the Microsoft Teams Chat Files folder.

  4. Select the file you wish to view.

Contact us

For more help, contact support or ask a question in the Microsoft Teams Community.

To access your OneDrive files, select the Files tab, then select OneDrive.

Share a file

To share a file:

  1. Select the Files tab.

  2. Select OneDrive.

  3. Browse to the directory for the file you want to share.

  4. Select More  More options button  next to the file you want to share.

  5. Select Share  Share button.

  6. Select the chat to which you wish to share the file. OneDrive will generate a link to the file.

  7. Select the Send button  Send button to share the link to the chat.

Get a link to a file

To get a link to a OneDrive file:

  1. Select the Files tab.

  2. Select OneDrive.

  3. Browse to the directory for the file for which you want to get a link.

  4. Select More  More options button next to the file.

  5. Select Copy Link  Copy link button.

  6. OneDrive will generate a link, which is automatically copied to your device's clipboard.

File Storage in Teams

When you share files or files are shared with you in chat, those files will automatically be added to your OneDrive.

To find shared files:

  1. Select the Files tab.

  2. Select OneDrive.

  3. Select the Microsoft Teams Chat Files folder.

Select the file you wish to view.

Contact us

For more help, contact support or ask a question in the Microsoft Teams Community.

Access your files on any device [MS]

When you're constantly on the move, whether working at home or during your commute, saving your files to the cloud in OneDrive for Business lets you access your files from anywhere and on any device. With the Office mobile apps, it's easy to work on files and co-author documents, no matter where you are.

Use the OneDrive mobile app

Your browser does not support video.
  • Share, delete, move, or rename files.

  • Save files offline so you can view or edit when you're not connected to the internet.

  • Create new files and folders, take photos or videos, and upload new files.

  • Use Scan to turn a document, whiteboard, or business card into a PDF that you can annotate and share with others.

Want more?

Use OneDrive on Android

Share files in OneDrive for iOS

Use the Word mobile app

Your browser does not support video.
  • Open a document sent to you in an email or as a link.

  • Edit and add comments to documents saved in the cloud.

  • Changes are saved automatically.

Want more?

Install Office on your mobile device

Share files and folders

Your browser does not support video.
  1. Select a file or folder, or with a file open, select Share.

  2. Select the drop-down list to change link permissions, if you want.

  3. Enter the names or email addresses of people you want to share with.

  4. Select Send.

Want more?

Share SharePoint files or folders

Share OneDrive files and folders

Access video training [MS]

Access SQL: SELECT clause [MS]

This is one of a set of articles about Access SQL. This article describes how to write a SELECT clause, and uses examples to illustrate various techniques that you can use when you write them.

For an overview of Access SQL, see the article Access SQL: basic concepts, vocabulary, and syntax.

In this article

Select fields: the SELECT clause

A SELECT statement usually starts with a SELECT clause. You use a SELECT clause to specify the names of the fields that have data that you want to use in a query. You can also use expressions instead of or in addition to fields. You can even use another SELECT statement as a field — this is referred to as a subquery.

Suppose that you want to know the telephone numbers of your customers. Assuming that the field that stores customer telephone numbers is called txtCustPhone, the SELECT clause appears as follows:

SELECT [txtCustomerPhone]

You can use square brackets to enclose the name. If the name does not contain any spaces or special characters (such as punctuation marks), the square brackets are optional. If the name does contain spaces or special characters, you must use the brackets.

Tip: A name that contains spaces is easier to read and can save you time when you design forms and reports, but may end up making you type more when you write SQL statements. You should consider this fact when you name objects in your Access database.

If your SQL statement has two or more fields that have the same name, you must add the name of each field's data source to the field name in the SELECT clause. You use the same name for the data source that you use in the FROM clause.

Select all fields

When you want to include all the fields from a data source, you can either list all the fields individually in the SELECT clause, or you can use the asterisk wildcard character (*). When you use the asterisk, Access determines when the query is run what fields the data source contains, and includes all those fields in the query. This helps make sure that the query stays up-to-date if new fields are added to the data source.

You can use the asterisk with one or more data sources in a SQL statement. If you use the asterisk and there are multiple data sources, you must include the data source name together with the asterisk, so that Access can determine which data source to include all fields from.

For example, suppose you want to select all the fields from the Orders table but only the e-mail address from the Contacts table. Your SELECT clause might resemble this:

SELECT Orders.*, Contacts.[E-mail Address]

Note: Keep track of when you use the asterisk. If new fields are later added to the data source and you did not plan for them, your query results might not turn out as you want.

Select distinct values

If you know that your statement will select redundant data, and you would rather see only distinct values, you can use the DISTINCT keyword in your SELECT clause. For example, suppose that your customers each represent several different interests, some of which use the same telephone number. If you want to make sure that you only see each telephone number once, your SELECT clause appears as follows:

SELECT DISTINCT [txtCustomerPhone]

Use substitute names for fields or expressions: the AS keyword

You can change the label that is displayed for any field in datasheet view by using the AS keyword and a field alias in your SELECT clause. A field alias is a name that you assign to a field in a query to make the results easier to read. For example, if you want to select data from a field named txtCustPhone, and the field contains customer telephone numbers, you could improve the readability of your results by using a field alias in your SELECT statement, as follows:

SELECT [txtCustPhone] AS [Customer Phone]

Note: You must use a field alias when you use an expression in a SELECT clause.

Select by using an expression

Sometimes, you want to look at calculations based on your data, or retrieve only part of a field's data. For example, suppose that you want to return the year that customers were born, based on data in the BirthDate field in your database. Your SELECT clause might resemble the following:

SELECT DatePart("yyyy",[BirthDate]) AS [Birth Year]

This expression consists of the DatePart function and two arguments — "yyyy" (a constant), and [BirthDate] (an identifier).

You can use any valid expression as a field, if the expression outputs a single value when given a single input value.

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Demographics targeting - Display & Video 360 Help [gg-displayvideo-en]

Demographics targeting

You can target ads based on demographics such as gender, age, parental status, and household income using Display & Video 360's demographics targeting.

When promoting ads for Housing, Employment, or Credit, some demographics targeting options are restricted. Learn more

Demographics targeting options

  • Gender: Select genders to target.

  • Age: Use the slider to select age ranges to target.

  • Parental status: Select parental statuses to target.

  • Household income: Use the slider to select estimated household income brackets to target.

All of the demographics also include an unknown option. This option expands the reach of your campaign to include unknown demographics. We recommend including this option unless you want to narrowly target specific demographics.

The Line item reach widget provides estimates to offer insight into how your line item could perform based on your targeting and budget settings. Estimates are based on a sample of 30 days of historical data. Learn more about forecasting the reach of a line item.

Limitations

  • Household income targeting is currently available for inventory in the following countries and regions:

    • Google Ad Manager: Australia, Brazil, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States

    • YouTube: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United States, Vietnam

    Line items won't be able to serve if you use geography targeting on locations where household targeting is not available, and you also use household income targeting.
  • There are restrictions on demographic targeting for certain types of creative content. Learn more in the Ads Policy help center
  • Household income targeting can't be combined with location lists

Access SQL: basic concepts, vocabulary, and syntax [MS]

Access SQL: basic concepts, vocabulary, and syntax

When you want to retrieve data from a database, you ask for the data by using Structured Query Language, or SQL. SQL is a computer language that closely resembles English, but that database programs understand. Every query that you run uses SQL behind the scenes.

Understanding how SQL works can help you create better queries, and can make it easier for you to understand how to fix a query that is not returning the results that you want.

This is one of a set of articles about Access SQL. This article describes the basic use of SQL to select data, and uses examples to illustrate SQL syntax.

In this article

What is SQL?

SQL is a computer language for working with sets of facts and the relationships between them. Relational database programs, such as Microsoft Office Access, use SQL to work with data. Unlike many computer languages, SQL is not difficult to read and understand, even for a novice. Like many computer languages, SQL is an international standard that is recognized by standards bodies such as ISO and ANSI.

You use SQL to describe sets of data that can help you answer questions. When you use SQL, you must use the correct syntax. Syntax is the set of rules by which the elements of a language are correctly combined. SQL syntax is based on English syntax, and uses many of the same elements as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) syntax.

For example, a simple SQL statement that retrieves a list of last names for contacts whose first name is Mary might resemble this:

SELECT Last_Name
FROM Contacts
WHERE First_Name = 'Mary';

Note: SQL is not only used for manipulating data, but also for creating and altering the design of database objects, such as tables. The part of SQL that is used for creating and altering database objects is called data-definition language (DDL). This topic does not cover DDL. For more information, see the article Create or modify tables or indexes by using a data-definition query.

SELECT statements

To describe a set of data by using SQL, you write a SELECT statement. A SELECT statement contains a complete description of a set of data that you want to obtain from a database. This includes the following:

  • What tables contain the data.

  • How data from different sources is related.

  • Which fields or calculations will produce the data.

  • Criteria that data must match to be included.

  • Whether and how to sort the results.

SQL clauses

Like a sentence, a SQL statement has clauses. Each clause performs a function for the SQL statement. Some clauses are required in a SELECT statement. The following table lists the most common SQL clauses.

SQL clause

What it does

Required

SELECT

Lists the fields that contain data of interest.

Yes

FROM

Lists the tables that contain the fields listed in the SELECT clause.

Yes

WHERE

Specifies field criteria that must be met by each record to be included in the results.

No

ORDER BY

Specifies how to sort the results.

No

GROUP BY

In a SQL statement that contains aggregate functions, lists fields that are not summarized in the SELECT clause.

Only if there are such fields

HAVING

In a SQL statement that contains aggregate functions, specifies conditions that apply to fields that are summarized in the SELECT statement.

No

SQL terms

Each SQL clause is composed of terms — comparable to parts of speech. The following table lists types of SQL terms.

SQL term

Comparable part of speech

Definition

Example

identifier

noun

A name that you use to identify a database object, such as the name of a field.

Customers.[Phone Number]

operator

verb or adverb

A keyword that represents an action or modifies an action.

AS

constant

noun

A value that does not change, such as a number or NULL.

42

expression

adjective

A combination of identifiers, operators, constants, and functions that evaluates to a single value.

>= Products.[Unit Price]

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Basic SQL clauses: SELECT, FROM, and WHERE

A SQL statement takes the general form:

SELECT field_1
FROM table_1
WHERE criterion_1
;

Notes: 

  • Access ignores line breaks in a SQL statement. However, consider using a line for each clause to help improve the readability of your SQL statements for yourself and others.

  • Every SELECT statement ends with a semi-colon (;). The semi-colon can appear at the end of the last clause or on a line by itself at the end of the SQL statement.

An example in Access

The following illustrates what a SQL statement for a simple select query might look like in Access:

SQL object tab showing a SELECT statement

1. SELECT clause

2. FROM clause

3. WHERE clause

This example SQL statement reads "Select the data that is stored in the fields named E-mail Address and Company from the table named Contacts, specifically those records in which the value of the field City is Seattle."

Let's look at the example, one clause at a time, to see how SQL syntax works.

The SELECT clause

SELECT [E-mail Address], Company

This is the SELECT clause. It consists of an operator (SELECT) followed by two identifiers ([E-mail Address] and Company).

If an identifier contains spaces or special characters (such as "E-mail Address"), it must be enclosed in square brackets.

A SELECT clause does not have to say which tables contain the fields, and it cannot specify any conditions that must be met by the data to be included.

The SELECT clause always appears in front of the FROM clause in a SELECT statement.

The FROM clause

FROM Contacts

This is the FROM clause. It consists of an operator (FROM) followed by an identifier (Contacts).

A FROM clause does not list the fields to be selected.

The WHERE clause

WHERE City="Seattle"

This is the WHERE clause. It consists of an operator (WHERE) followed by an expression (City="Seattle").

Note: Unlike the SELECT and FROM clauses, the WHERE clause is not a required element of a SELECT statement.

You can accomplish many of the actions that SQL enables you to do by using SELECT, FROM, and WHERE clauses. More information about how you use these clauses is presented in these additional articles:

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Sorting the results: ORDER BY

Like Microsoft Excel, Access lets you sort query results in a datasheet. You can also specify in the query how you want to sort the results when the query is run, by using an ORDER BY clause. If you use an ORDER BY clause, it is the last clause in the SQL statement.

An ORDER BY clause contains a list of the fields that you want to use for sorting, in the same order that you want to apply the sort operations.

For example, suppose that you want your results sorted first by the value of the field Company in descending order, and  — if there are records with the same value for Company — sorted next by the values in the field E-mail Address in ascending order. Your ORDER BY clause would resemble the following:

ORDER BY Company DESC, [E-mail Address]

Note: By default, Access sorts values in ascending order (A-Z, smallest to largest). Use the DESC keyword to sort values in descending order instead.

For more information about the ORDER BY clause, see the topic ORDER BY Clause.

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Working with summarized data: GROUP BY and HAVING

Sometimes you want to work with summarized data, such as the total sales in a month, or the most expensive items in an inventory. To do this, you apply an aggregate function to a field in your SELECT clause. For example, if you want your query to show the count of e-mail addresses listed for each company, your SELECT clause might resemble the following:

SELECT COUNT([E-mail Address]), Company

The aggregate functions that you can use depend on the type of data that is in the field or expression that you want to use. For more information about the available aggregate functions, see the article SQL Aggregate Functions.

Specifying fields that are not used in an aggregate function: The GROUP BY clause

When you use aggregate functions, you usually must also create a GROUP BY clause. A GROUP BY clause lists all the fields to which you do not apply an aggregate function. If you apply aggregate functions to all the fields in a query, you do not have to create the GROUP BY clause.

A GROUP BY clause immediately follows the WHERE clause, or the FROM clause if there is no WHERE clause. A GROUP BY clause lists the fields as they appear in the SELECT clause.

For example, continuing the previous example, if your SELECT clause applies an aggregate function to [E-mail Address] but not to Company, your GROUP BY clause would resemble the following:

GROUP BY Company

For more information about the GROUP BY clause, see the topic GROUP BY Clause.

Limiting aggregate values by using group criteria: the HAVING clause

If you want to use criteria to limit your results, but the field that you want to apply criteria to is used in an aggregate function, you cannot use a WHERE clause. Instead, you use a HAVING clause. A HAVING clause works like a WHERE clause, but is used for aggregated data.

For example, suppose that you use the AVG function (which calculates an average value) with the first field in your SELECT clause:

SELECT COUNT([E-mail Address]), Company

If you want the query to restrict the results based on the value of that COUNT function, you cannot use a criteria for that field in the WHERE clause. Instead, you put the criteria in a HAVING clause. For example, if you only want the query to return rows if there are more than one e-mail addresses associated with the company, the HAVING clause might resemble the following:

HAVING COUNT([E-mail Address])>1

Note: A query can have a WHERE clause and a HAVING clause — criteria for fields that are not used in an aggregate function go in the WHERE clause, and criteria for fields that are used with aggregate functions go in the HAVING clause.

For more information about the HAVING clause, see the topic HAVING Clause.

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Combining query results: UNION

When you want to review all the data that is returned by several similar select queries together, as a combined set, you use the UNION operator.

The UNION operator lets you combine two SELECT statements into one. The SELECT statements that you combine must have the same number of output fields, in the same order, and with the same or compatible data types. When you run the query, data from each set of corresponding fields is combined into one output field, so that the query output has the same number of fields as each of the select statements.

Note: For the purposes of a union query, the Number and Text data types are compatible.

When you use the UNION operator, you can also specify whether the query results should include duplicate rows, if any exist, by using the ALL key word.

The basic SQL syntax for a union query that combines two SELECT statements is as follows:

SELECT field_1
FROM table_1
UNION [ALL]
SELECT field_a
FROM table_a
;

For example, suppose that you have a table named Products and another table named Services. Both tables have fields that contain the name of the product or service, the price, warranty or guarantee availability, and whether you offer the product or service exclusively. Although the Products table stores warranty information, and the Services table stores guarantee information, the basic information is the same (whether a particular product or service includes a promise of quality). You can use a union query, such as the following, to combine the four fields from the two tables:

SELECT name, price, warranty_available, exclusive_offer
FROM Products
UNION ALL
SELECT name, price, guarantee_available, exclusive_offer
FROM Services
;

For more information about how to combine SELECT statements by using the UNION operator, see Combine the results of several select queries by using a union query.

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Access specifications [MS]

This article has information about the limits of Microsoft Access database files and objects. In most cases when a database exceeds the following limits it might be an indication of a design issue. Using the information in this article and a careful examination of your database design might help you locate what needs to be corrected for successful implementation. For example, importing data directly from Microsoft Excel into Access without normalization can result in creation of additional fields (columns). If you'd like information about designing databases or normalization, take a look at the resources in the Additional information section.

In this article

Database specifications

The following list of tables applies to Access databases. Specific version differences, if any, are called out individually.

General

Attribute

Maximum

Total size for an Access database (.accdb or .mdb), including all database objects and data

2 gigabytes, minus the space needed for system objects.

Note: You can work around this size limitation by linking to tables in other Access databases. You can link to tables in multiple database files, each of which can be as large as 2GB.

Tip: For more information on reducing the size of your database, see Help prevent and correct database file problems by using Compact and Repair.

Total number of objects in a database

32,768

Number of modules (including forms and reports that have the HasModule property set to True)

1,000

Number of characters in an object name

64

Number of characters in a password

14

Note: For Access 2007, it is 20 characters.

Number of characters in a user name or group name

20

Number of concurrent users

255

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Table

Attribute

Maximum

Number of characters in a table name

64

Number of characters in a field name

64

Number of fields in a table

255

Number of open tables

2,048 including linked tables and the tables opened internally by Access

Table size

2 gigabyte minus the space needed for the system objects

Number of characters in a Short Text field

Note: Beginning in Access 2013, Text fields are now called Short Text fields.

255

Number of characters in a Long Text field

Note: Beginning in Access 2013, Memo fields are now called Long Text fields.

65,535 when entering data through the user interface;
1 gigabyte of character storage when entering data programmatically

Size of an OLE Object field

1 gigabyte

Number of indexes in a table

32 including indexes created internally to maintain table relationships, single-field and composite indexes.

Number of fields in an index or primary key

10

Number of characters in a validation message

255

Number of characters in a validation rule including punctuations and operators

2,048

Number of characters in a field or table description

255

Number of characters in a record (excluding Long Text and OLE Object fields) when the UnicodeCompression property of the fields is set to Yes

4,000

Number of characters in a field property setting

255

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Query

Attribute

Maximum

Number of enforced relationships

32 per table, minus the number of indexes that are on the table for fields or combinations of fields that are not involved in relationships*

Number of tables in a query

32*

Number of joins in a query

16*

Number of fields in a recordset

255

Recordset size

1 gigabyte

Sort limit

255 characters in one or more fields

Number of levels of nested queries

50*

Number of characters in a cell in the query design grid

1,024

Number of characters for a parameter in a parameter query

255

Number of AND operators in a WHERE or HAVING clause

99*

Number of characters in an SQL statement

Approximately 64,000*

*Maximum values might be lower if the query includes multivalued lookup fields (.accdb only).

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Form and Report

Attribute

Maximum

Number of characters in a label

2,048

Number of characters in a text box

65,535

Form or report width

22,75 in. (57.79 cm)

Section height

22.75 in. (57.79 cm)

Height of all sections plus section headers (in Design view)

200 in. (508 cm)

Number of levels of nested forms or reports

7

Number of fields or expressions that you can sort or group on in a report

10

Number of headers and footers in a report

1 report header/footer;
1 page header/footer;
10 group headers/footers

Number of printed pages in a report

65,536

Number of controls and sections that you can add over the lifetime of the form or report

754

Number of characters in an SQL statement that serves as the Recordsource or Rowsource property of a form, report, or control.

32,750

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Macro

Attribute

Maximum

Number of actions in a macro

999

Number of characters in a condition

255

Number of characters in a comment

255

Number of characters in an action argument

255

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Project specifications

The following list of tables applies to Access ADP projects:

General

Attribute

Maximum

Number of objects in an Access project (.adp)

32,768

Number of modules (including forms and reports that have the HasModule property set to True)

1,000

Number of characters in an object name

64

Number of columns in a table

250 (Microsoft SQL Server 6.5)

1024 (Microsoft SQL Server 7.0, 2000 and 2005)

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Form and Report

Attribute

Maximum

Number of characters in a label

2,048

Number of characters in a text box

65,535

Form or report width

22 in. (55.87 cm)

Section height

22 in. (55.87 cm)

Height of all sections plus section headers (in Design view)

200 in. (508 cm)

Number of levels of nested forms or reports

7

Number of fields or expressions that you can sort or group on in a report

10

Number of headers and footers in a report

1 report header/footer;
1 page header/footer;
10 group headers/footers

Number of printed pages in a report

65,536

Number of controls and sections you can add over the lifetime of the form or report

754

Number of characters in an SQL statement that serves as the Recordsource or Rowsource property of a form, report, or control (both .accdb and .adp)

32,750

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Macro

Attribute

Maximum

Number of actions in a macro

999

Number of characters in a condition

255

Number of characters in a comment

255

Number of characters in an action argument

255

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Additional information

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