Tuesday, August 3, 2021

IMA SDK - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-adxbuyer-en]

IMA SDK

The Google Interactive Media Ads (IMA) Software Developer Kit (SDK) lets publishers to display linear, non-linear, and companion ads in interactive media content such as video and online games. The IMA SDK exposes a set of APIs that allow publishers to request ads from Google Ad Manager or AdSense, interpret the ad response, and report metrics back to the ad server. The VPAID adapter can also be used to load the IMA SDK dynamically. There are several IMA SDKs in use with video publishers, including IMA2, IMA3, and IMA for HTML5.

IMA SDK - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-authorizedbuyers-en]

IMA SDK

The Google Interactive Media Ads (IMA) Software Developer Kit (SDK) lets publishers to display linear, non-linear, and companion ads in interactive media content such as video and online games. The IMA SDK exposes a set of APIs that allow publishers to request ads from Google Ad Manager or AdSense, interpret the ad response, and report metrics back to the ad server. The VPAID adapter can also be used to load the IMA SDK dynamically. There are several IMA SDKs in use with video publishers, including IMA2, IMA3, and IMA for HTML5.

Duration - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-authorizedbuyers-en]

Duration

The length of time allotted for a video ad to play. The Ad Exchange allows buyers to traffic video ads in 15, 20, 30, 60 and 120 second durations.

Abandonment rate - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-authorizedbuyers-en]

Abandonment rate

The percentage of users who view a video ad but do not complete it, by navigating away from the site, closing the browser, and so forth. A high abandonment rate is reflective of poor audience reception, due either to low-quality creatives or incorrect audience targeting.

Apple ID & Privacy - Apple Support

Apple ID & Privacy

Apple ID is designed to protect your information and enable you to choose what you share.


  • When you sign in with your Apple ID, you will enable services such as iCloud, the App Store, iMessage, and Find My on this iPhone.
  • Certain data, including your contacts, calendars, photos, documents, health, activity, and other app data, will be sent to Apple to store and back up on your behalf.
  • In addition, your device will be associated with your Apple ID to provide you with better service and support.

Your Apple ID and all Apple services are designed from the ground up to protect your privacy. We work hard to collect only the data we need to make your experience better. When we do collect data, we believe it's important for you to know what we're collecting and why we need it, so you can make informed choices.

An Apple ID is the personal account you use to access Apple services like iCloud, the App Store and other Apple online stores, iMessage, and FaceTime, and to access your content across all your devices and the web. Your Apple ID includes the information you use to sign in, as well as all the contact, payment, and security details, such as trusted phone numbers or security questions, that you use across Apple services. Apple retains your device's name, serial number, and other hardware identifiers to provide you with better service and support, including as a convenience to display the warranty status of your device and to check your eligibility for service offers. You can edit your Apple ID information and view a list of your devices on your Apple ID account page at appleid.apple.com.

When you sign in with your Apple ID you will enable services such as iCloud, the iTunes Store, the App Store, iMessage, FaceTime, and Find My on this iPhone. Your Apple ID account information will be used with each service and certain data from your device, including your contacts, calendars, photos, documents, health, activity, Safari tabs, and other app data, will be sent to Apple to store and back up on your behalf.

iCloud and Privacy

Signing in to iCloud

When you use iCloud, certain data you store on your device will be automatically sent to and stored by Apple. This allows you to access your data on all your iCloud-enabled devices or computers ("devices") automatically. This data may include:

• Contacts

• Calendars

• Reminders

• Bookmarks

• Safari tabs

• Health data

• Home data

• Notes

• Photos

• Documents

• Wallet data

• Keychain and passwords

• Device and account settings

• Data from third-party apps that use iCloud

iCloud Backup is also enabled to help ensure you have a current backup of the data on your device in case you need to replace or restore it.

You can adjust which iCloud features are enabled and what data is sent to iCloud from Settings on your device at any time.

iCloud Data Security

iCloud protects your information by encrypting it when it's in transit, storing it in iCloud in an encrypted format, and using secure tokens for authentication. For certain information, Apple uses end-to-end encryption. This means that, by design, only you can access this information, and only on devices where you're signed in to iCloud. No one else, not even Apple, can access end-to-end encrypted information. For more information on iCloud Data Security, see support.apple.com/kb/HT202303.

In some cases, your iCloud data may be stored using third-party partners' servers; however, Apple never provides encryption keys to any third parties.

iCloud Keychain

iCloud Keychain keeps your Safari website usernames and passwords, credit card information, and Wi-Fi network information up to date and available across all your devices. It can also store the account information you use for Mail, Contacts, Calendar, Messages, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and other internet accounts and automatically add this information to all of your devices.

iCloud Keychain uses end-to-end encryption and is designed so that only you can access this information and only on devices where you're signed in to iCloud. No one else, not even Apple, can access your iCloud keychain data. You can choose to turn off iCloud Keychain in your iCloud settings at any time.

iCloud Backup

When you use iCloud Backup, your backup may include photos, videos, messages (iMessage, SMS, and MMS), Health and other app data, location settings (such as location-based reminders that you have set up), Visual Voicemail, device settings, device characteristics, and other data from your iOS or iPadOS device depending on your Settings.

You can stop iCloud from backing up your app data for a particular app by going to Settings > [your name] > iCloud > Manage Storage > Backups, selecting your iOS or iPadOS device in the Backups section, and tapping to turn off the apps for which you'd like to disable backup.

You can turn off iCloud Backup entirely from iCloud settings and use Finder (macOS Catalina 10.15 or later) or iTunes (macOS Mojave 10.14 or earlier) to back up your iOS or iPadOS device to your computer. To completely remove your backup data from iCloud, you can delete your individual backups before turning off iCloud Backup. Otherwise, the backup data will be retained for up to 180 days.

Sharing Data with iCloud

If you use iCloud to share files either publicly or privately in Notes, Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and certain third-party apps, Apple will store and have access to the shared file. Your first and last name associated with your account and the file name will be available to anyone who has access to the sharing link, regardless of whether your share is private or public. The identities of private share participants will not be made available to anyone who has not been invited to and accepted the private share.

iCloud and Apps

Some apps use iCloud to store data and content you provide to the app, so you can access the data across all your iCloud-enabled devices. The app may choose to store some or all of your data in iCloud. Third-party apps can request to look you up, so that other users of that application can see your first and last name when they search by Apple ID.

You can stop an app from storing data in iCloud by turning off its access to iCloud. To do so, go to Settings > [your name] > iCloud, and tap to turn off apps shown in Apps Using iCloud.

Find My

When you sign in and enable iCloud on your device, certain features of Find My are enabled automatically. These include participation in the Find My network, a crowdsourced network of Apple devices that helps find missing devices or compatible items as described below, and the ability to play a sound on your device, remotely lock and display a message on it, or remotely erase it. Your devices with a security chip will also be protected with Activation Lock, and cannot be erased and reactivated without your password. Enabling Find My on your iPhone will automatically enable it on any paired Apple Watch. You can also enable Find My for an Apple Watch, which will enable it on your paired iPhone.

When you use Find My, your device's location, as well as information about your device and your account will be sent to and retained by Apple so we can provide you with the service. Your device's location is sent to Apple only if you actively request the location of a device or accessory. Apple retains location information and makes it accessible to you for 24 hours, after which it is deleted. When you have Location Services enabled, you can also choose to share your device's current location using Find My and Share My Location. When using these features, your location is sent to Apple only if it is actively requested by a friend you are sharing with, and retained for two hours, after which it is deleted. Find My and Share My Location are enabled only when you actively choose to share your location with someone else.

Find My can help you locate your devices on a map if you have enabled Location Services. If you choose to enable the Send Last Location feature, your device's last known location will be automatically sent to Apple any time your device's battery reaches a critically low level.

Find My can help find devices even if they are not connected to the internet by using the Find My network, a crowdsourced network of participating Apple devices. Devices in the Find My network use Bluetooth wireless technology to detect missing devices or compatible items nearby, including AirTags and compatible third-party products registered to your Apple ID, and report their approximate location back to the owner. The interaction is end-to-end encrypted, and Apple cannot see the location of any offline device or reporting device. When your device participates in the Find My network it can both be located by the network and anonymously help locate other missing devices. You can choose to have your iOS or iPadOS device not participate in the Find My network by going to Settings > [your name] > Find My and tapping to disable Find My network. You can choose to have your Mac not participate in the Find My network by going to System Preferences > Apple ID > iCloud, clicking Options next to Find My Mac, and turning off Find My network. For more information on AirTags and compatible third-party products, including instructions on adding these products to Find My and registering them to your Apple ID, see support.apple.com/kb/HT211331.

You can turn off Find My and Activation Lock on your iOS or iPadOS device by going to Settings > [your name] > Find My > Find My iPhone or Find My iPad, and tapping to turn off Find My iPhone or Find My iPad. On your Mac, go to System Preferences > Apple ID > iCloud and deselect Find My Mac in the list of Apps on this Mac using iCloud, or on your PC, open iTunes.

Apple Services That Require iCloud

To use Apple services like Apple Pay, Activity sharing, Home, Handoff, Universal Clipboard, and Unlock with Apple Watch, you must be signed in to iCloud on your device. Apple uses your iCloud plan to verify your eligibility to set up and use Secure Camera Recording in the Home app. Apple can't access the content of your camera recordings. You do not need to use all iCloud features and can turn off any iCloud features you don't want to use in iCloud settings on your device.

Signing Out of iCloud

If you want to stop using iCloud on your iOS or iPadOS device and any paired Apple Watch, you can sign out of iCloud by going to Settings > [your name] and tapping Sign Out. To stop using iCloud on your Mac, go to System Preferences > Apple ID > Overview and sign out of iCloud. Your Apple ID password may be required.

Communicating with You

Apple may use information about your account, such as the Apple products you own and your subscriptions to Apple services, to send you communications about iCloud and other Apple products, services, and offers that may be of interest to you, including Apple One. If you purchase an Apple One subscription, we may send you emails and push notifications about the features of each of the services for which you have subscribed. You can change your email preferences and opt out of receiving these emails by going to appleid.apple.com.

Family Sharing

Family Sharing lets you share certain content, location, subscriptions and screen usage information among family members; the family organizer can choose which shared features to enable. If Family Sharing is enabled for Apple Music, Apple TV, Apple Arcade, or Apple News+, family members will continue to sign in to each service using their own Apple IDs, keeping their individual libraries and recommendations private, while taking advantage of the family plan. Similarly, enabling Family Sharing for iCloud storage gives each family member access to the family storage plan, while keeping individual accounts and files separate.

If Purchase Sharing is enabled, members of your family will automatically be able to access many of your past and future App Store, Apple Books, and Apple Music purchases, unless you choose to hide those purchases. To hide purchases, you can hide individual iTunes, Apple Books, and App Store purchases, or disable Share My Purchases within your personal Family Sharing settings; the family organizer will continue to receive receipts for purchases made in the App Store, Apple Books, and Apple Music even if you have hidden your purchases.

If you choose to share your location with your family, all family members will automatically be able to see the location of all your devices in the Find My app so they can help you locate a missing device or see your current location on a map. You can manage or turn off location sharing with individual family members in Find My settings on your device.

If you are the family organizer and enable Screen Time for Family, you will be able to view certain information about your family's device usage. The family organizer can also choose to set Screen Time limits for the Family, which will be automatically enforced for children. The family organizer can grant permission to family members to view Screen Time information for other family members.

iMessage and FaceTime

When you sign in with your Apple ID on your iPhone, you will be signed in to iMessage and FaceTime automatically. Your Apple ID or phone numbers will be shown to the people you contact, and people can reach you using your Apple ID, and email addresses or phone numbers on your account. You can learn more about iMessage and FaceTime and Privacy by going to Settings > Messages and tapping About iMessage and FaceTime & Privacy.

iTunes and App Store and Music

When you sign in with your Apple ID on your iPhone, you will be signed in to the iTunes Store, App Store, and Apple Music automatically so that you can make purchases or begin using Apple Music quickly and easily. Any purchases you choose to make will be recorded in our systems so you can redownload them at any time. If you use Apple Music, your listening history may be retained and used to help provide personalized recommendations in Listen Now. You can choose not to share your listening history from Apple Music settings.

If iTunes Match is available in your region and you use iTunes Match, iCloud will collect information about media in your iTunes library, and either match media to songs currently available in the iTunes Store or upload songs that cannot be matched, after which those songs can be accessed by your eligible devices.

Payment Methods, Gift Cards, and Adding Funds to Apple ID Balance

To make purchases from App Store, iTunes, Music, and more, you must add a valid payment method to your Apple ID. To add a payment method on iOS, go to Settings > [your name] > Payment & Shipping, tap Add Payment Method, and add relevant payment details. You may add payment details by manually entering information or taking a picture of your payment card. If you choose to add payment details by taking a picture of your payment card, your device will pull the relevant information from the image to populate the required fields; the image will not be seen or stored by Apple. Apple collects and stores the payment method details that you provide, including account number and expiration date, to carry out your purchases, comply with law, and to prevent fraud. You may also provide Apple with a billing and shipping address, which may be used for marketing and analytics purposes, as well as to comply with law and prevent fraud.

If you have enabled Apple Pay, Apple will also check whether any Apple Pay payment methods are eligible to be added as a payment method on file to your Apple ID and display those payment methods below Found in Wallet. When you conduct a transaction with your Apple ID, Apple may also check whether any Apple ID payment methods on file are eligible for Apple Pay. If so, to help safeguard your payment information, Apple may enable Apple Pay for that payment method. You can modify your payment methods at any time by going to Settings > [your name] > Payment & Shipping.

You may purchase an Apple gift card using a payment method associated with your Apple ID and share the gift card with a recipient by providing Apple with their email address, your name, and the gift card amount. You may also enter a message if you so choose. Apple will use recipient information for purposes of gift card sales and redemptions, to comply with law, and to prevent fraud.

You may also redeem an Apple gift card by applying the gift card value to your Apple ID balance. When you redeem an Apple gift card, information about the gift card will be associated with your Apple ID balance and may be used by Apple to comply with law and to prevent fraud. Certain information about your gift card redemption, such as the number of gift cards that you have redeemed, may also be used to personalize your redemption experience and communications from Apple to you. You may opt out of use of gift card information for personalization by going to iTunes Store, scrolling to the bottom, tapping Apple ID > View Apple ID and tapping to turn off Personalized Recommendations.

You may add funds directly to your Apple ID balance using your payment method on file. When you add funds to your Apple ID balance, you may have the option to set automatic amount or time intervals for recurring funds increases. When you set up automatic funds increases, you will receive communications from Apple on your device or by email concerning your balance or recurring funds increases (for example confirmation notices, receipts, and reminders once you've enrolled). You can update or stop the automatic funds increases at any time in your Apple ID account settings.

To improve your experience with payment methods, gift cards, and adding funds to your Apple ID balance, Apple may collect certain data about your interactions, including your clicks and taps, with your Apple ID account payment settings.

Usage Data

We also collect data on your use of iCloud to provide and improve the quality of the service. To help address customer issues if they arise, some of this data may be associated with your Apple ID. We may use your IP address to determine the city and country from which you are accessing the service, but we do not retain it.

At all times, information collected by Apple will be treated in accordance with Apple's Privacy Policy, which can be found at www.apple.com/privacy.

Information about products not manufactured by Apple, or independent websites not controlled or tested by Apple, is provided without recommendation or endorsement. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the selection, performance, or use of third-party websites or products. Apple makes no representations regarding third-party website accuracy or reliability. Contact the vendor for additional information.

Published Date: 

Third-party ad serving (3PAS) - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-authorizedbuyers-en]

Third-party ad serving (3PAS)

  1. Third-party ad serving (3PAS) is a model of ad delivery involving three parties: the publisher, the user, and the ad server. Rather than serve an ad directly to the user's browser, the publisher delivers an ad tag, which redirects the browser to an ad server where the ad is stored.
  2. May also refer to the server itself, as in: Campaign Manager 360 is a 3PAS.

Automatic budget allocation - Display & Video 360 Help [gg-displayvideo-en]

Automatic budget allocation

Optimize your line items' budgets, automatically

In an insertion order, if you enable auto budget allocation, Display & Video 360 will optimize how your insertion order's budget is spent by dynamically shifting money between the insertion order's line items. Auto budget allocation will increase the budgets for high-performing line items by taking money away from lower-performing line items.

Would automatic budget allocation be useful for you?

You should consider using automatic budget allocation if your insertion orders have CPC or CPA goals, and your line items require regular rebalancing of their budgets to ensure spend is allocated according to performance.

 

When shouldn't I use automatic budget allocation?

Don't use automatic budget allocation if your insertion order…

  • Has a flight of less than 2 weeks.
  • Is for "brand" purposes, and isn't aiming to drive clicks or conversions.
  • Contains line items with a mixture of CPC and CPA bid strategies.

Performance of line items

Display & Video 360 judges the performance of line items by comparing the goals set for your insertion order (for example, CPA).

What if my line items don't track conversions?

If your line items don't track conversions, Display & Video 360 will compare line items based on their CPCs. Similarly to CPAs, lower CPCs indicate "better performance."

When a line item is performing well, Display & Video 360 can increase its daily budget. In certain situations (such as in the event you've increased your insertion order's budget), Display & Video 360 can increase a well-performing line item's budget much more than 20% day-over-day. However, in the end, your line item's spend will always be capped by the insertion order's budget.

In contrast to well-performing line items, Display & Video 360 can decrease the daily budget of lower-performing line items by up to 20% each day.

Budget considerations

Automatic budget allocation uses the insertion order's budget—not the combined total of the line items' budgets—to determine the total amount of budget that's divided among the line items in the insertion order.

Show me an example

For instance, say you have an insertion order with 3 line items. The insertion order's budget is $500, but each line item has a budget of $200.

In this example, the insertion order's budget of $500, and not the line items' combined total budget of $600, will be divided among all line items in the insertion order.

IO budget vs combined line item budget

Pacing

Ultimately, automatic budget allocation will aim to fulfill the pacing setting of the insertion order. Because of this, make sure your insertion order is set up with the appropriate pacing option for your advertiser's needs.

Auto budget allocation can be used with "ASAP" pacing only if your insertion order contains YouTube & partners line items exclusively. Note that auto budget allocation uses a 1.2 multiplier to calculate the daily target. 

Turn on auto budget allocation

To enable auto budget allocation, open an insertion order, navigate to the Settings tab, then check the box next to Auto Budget Allocation.

Best practices

To get the most out of auto budget allocation:

  • Set realistic, fixed starting budgets for each line item and try to get your line items' budgets to add up to your overall insertion order budget.
  • Use a supported goal. All goals are supported except for CPE and Other.

Frequently asked questions

How does auto budget allocation work?

When automatic budget allocation is enabled, Display & Video 360 looks at recent performance data to infer how your insertion order's budget can best be allocated across its line items. This is done by first considering your line items' ability to spend your insertion order's budget, and then by allocating your insertion order's budget according to the performance of individual line items. 

In the absence of inventory limitations, the best performing line items will be prioritized over less well-performing line items. If you aren't tracking conversions, Display & Video 360 will optimize based on each line item's CPC.

Please note, if your line items are relatively new, Display & Video 360 will require a few days of data collection before auto budget allocation can start to rebalance your line items' budgets.

What happens once I've enabled auto budget allocation?
  • Your line items' budgets will be changed.

    Display & Video 360 can start to change the budgets for the line items in your insertion order as soon as you enable automatic budget allocation. Additionally, Display & Video 360 will automatically set finite budgets for any line items that previously had an "unlimited" budget.

    As soon as Display & Video 360 starts to change your line items' budgets, the changes can't be undone. Moreover, if you later disable auto budget allocation, your line items' budgets will not be restored to their original budgets, so make sure you only enable auto budget allocation in insertion orders where you're comfortable with your line item budgets being changed.
  • Your line items will be set to "flight" pacing.

    If you later disable auto budget allocation, your line items will be reverted to "Daily" pacing based on their previous settings.

How will my line items' budgets be converted?
  • Unlimited budgets

    Line items with unlimited budgets will be given finite, flight-paced budgets, as follows:

    • Line items with flight pacing:

      For each line item with an unlimited budget and flight pacing, Display & Video 360 will set the line item's starting budget equal to the insertion order's overall budget. However, since the line items in an insertion order are constrained by the insertion order's overall budget, each line item will spend less than their new starting budgets. After line items are given their initial finite budgets, Display & Video 360 will rapidly adjust the budgets of each line item based on their relative performance.

      Show me an example

      For example, if you have an insertion order with a budget of $100,000, Display & Video 360 will assign an initial budget of $100,000 to each line item that previously had an unlimited budget and flight pacing. As these line items serve, their budgets will be adjusted rapidly.

    • Line items with daily pacing:

      Display & Video 360 will convert a line item's unlimited budget to a finite budget according to the following formula:

        Daily spending goal × number of days = Line item's starting budget  

      For example, if a line item was initially set up to spend its budget at $100 per day, and the line item has 14 days left in its flight, Display & Video 360 would set the line item's budget to $1400 as a starting point.

  • Line items with impression-based daily budgets

    Impression-based budgets will be converted into monetary budgets according to the following formula:

    CPM bid × daily impression goal × number of days = Line item's starting budget
What happens when if I turn on auto budget allocation, and some of my line items were underpacing?

As with any time auto budget allocation is turned on, budgets will be moved from any under-pacing or under-performing line items to other, better pacing and better performing line items, depending the available line items' performance and ability to spend their budgets.

If all line items in your insertion order are underpacing, budget allocations may seem unusual as budgets are shifted from one under-pacing line item to another. In some cases where the performance is best on a few line items, budgets of under-pacing and under-performing line items can be almost entirely re-allocated to the better performing line items.

Can I see the budget changes made by auto budget allocation?

Yes. To see the changes made to individual line item budgets by auto budget allocation, review your line items' event history.

Can line items be excluded when setting up auto budget allocation?

Yes, line items can be excluded from auto budget allocation by setting a fixed budget. First, enable auto budget allocation at the insertion order level, then select Control bid and budget at the line item level in the Settings tab. Next, check the Automatically optimize your budget allocation box. You can now exclude some line items when a budget needs to be controlled, but still have insertion orders that make use of auto budget allocation.

SMTP relay: Route outgoing non-Gmail messages through Google - Google Workspace Admin Help [gg-a-en]

SMTP relay: Route outgoing non-Gmail messages through Google

If you have the legacy free edition of G Suite, upgrade to Google Workspace to get this feature. 

If your organization uses Microsoft Exchange or another non-Gmail SMTP service, you can configure the SMTP relay service to route outgoing mail through Google. You can use the SMTP relay service setting to filter messages for spam and viruses before they reach external contacts. You can also apply Google Workspace email security and advanced Gmail settings to outgoing messages.

Before you begin

Turn on comprehensive mail storage

We recommend that you turn on comprehensive mail storage. Comprehensive mail storage trains the spam filter about addresses you send to, so that messages sent from these addresses are less likely to be marked as spam.

You must turn on comprehensive mail storage if your non-Gmail system uses the SMTP Relay Service to route messages for ticket tracking systems, bug databases, or automated notification systems, and display that mail in your users' Gmail Inboxes. If you use Google Vault and the SMTP relay service, you must also turn on comprehensive mail storage to have any messages sent through the relay archived in Vault.

Review sending limits for the SMTP relay service

Limits per user

  • The maximum number of messages a user can send in a 24-hour period is 10,000. However, this can be lower if your Google Workspace account is still in a trial-like period. Read more at Gmail sending limits in Google Workspace.
  • A registered Google Workspace user can't relay messages to more than 10,000 unique recipients in a 24-hour period. 

Notes:

  • If a user exceeds either of these limits, the sender receives the error "550 5.4.5 Daily SMTP relay limit exceeded for user." 

  • Google servers can handle more than 100 recipients per transaction. However, RFC 5321 limits might block some transactions.

The message count is based on the address of the envelope sender presented during the SMTP relay transaction. If the envelope sender is not a registered user, then the per-user limits don't apply. Addresses in the From: and Reply-to: fields are not considered. Nor do we consider the address presented during SMTP authentication, which is turned on if you select the Require SMTP Authentication option, described below.

Any sender, whether or not they're a registered user, can also be prevented from sending messages if a customer relay limit has been reached. In this case, they see a different error message based on limits per customer.

Important: SMTP relay limits are lower for trial accounts. To increase SMTP relay limits for a trial account, you must pay a Google-generated bill.  This is different than increasing Gmail limits, which can be initiated by ending your free trial.

Limits per customer

These limits are determined by the number of user licenses in your Google Workspace account. For small customers, these limits come into effect much earlier than the limits per user.

There are two per-customer limits:

  • The maximum number of total recipients allowed per customer per 24-hour period is approximately 130 times the number of user licenses in your Google Workspace account, with an upper bound of 4,600,000 recipients per 24-hour period for large customers. If a customer exceeds this limit, users see the error "550 5.7.1 Daily SMTP relay limit exceeded for customer."
  • The maximum number of total recipients allowed per customer in a 10-minute window is approximately 9 times the number of user licenses in your Google Workspace account, with an upper bound of 319,444 recipients per 10-minute window for large customers. If a customer exceeds this limit, users see the error "450 4.2.1 Peak SMTP relay limit exceeded for customer."

Additional notes

  • The per-user recipient limits are for unique recipients, while the per customer limits are for total recipients. For example, when a given user relays 1000 messages to RecipientA and another 1000 to RecipientB, this counts as 2 for the per user limit, but 2000 for the customer limit.
  • Customer limits apply to all messages relayed by the customer, including messages relayed from any of the customer's secondary or subdomains, as well as messages relayed from external addresses where one of the customer's domains is presented in the "helo" argument.
  • Customer limits are lower for customers who have not yet paid a bill: 100 total recipients per day, 50 total recipients in a 10-minute window.
  • There are separate per-user sending limits published here for sending email using Gmail rather than SMTP relay. The SMTP relay and Gmail user sending limits are independent and are counted separately from each other.

Denial of Service (DoS) limits

Google Workspace SMTP relay servers have protections in place to guard against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. To avoid conflicts with these protections, SMTP agents that send large amounts of mail through smtp-relay.google.com and smtp.gmail.com should reuse connections, sending multiple messages per connection. This is also known as connection caching. For instructions on this process, please contact your email server software provider.

Be sure that your server presents unique identifiers in the HELO or EHLO arguments during the SMTP connection. For example, choose your domain name or the name of your server rather than "localhost" or "smtp-relay.gmail.com."

Relay abuse limits

Google monitors messages sent through the SMTP relay service for spam classification purposes. When we detect significant amounts of spam being sent from any user through the relay service, we send an email notification to super administrators alerting them of this sending behavior. Learn more about the spam and abuse policy and handling SMTP relay abuse.

Step 1: Route outbound mail using the SMTP relay service

Note: After you enter and save an IP address or range, you can enable or disable it by checking or unchecking the box to the left of the entry.

  1. Sign in to your Google Admin console.

    Sign in using your administrator account (does not end in @gmail.com).

  2. From the Admin console Home page, go to Appsand thenGoogle Workspaceand thenGmailand thenRouting.

    Note: You might find this setting at Appsand thenGoogle Workspaceand thenGmailand thenAdvanced Settings.

  3. On the left, select the top-level organization. See Tailor advanced settings for Gmail for more details.

    Note: You can configure the SMTP relay service setting for the top-level organization only. You can view the setting from the sub-organization level when it's added, but you can't add, edit, or delete the setting from the sub-organization level.

  4. Scroll to the SMTP relay service setting in the Routing section, hover over the setting, and click Configure. If the setting is already configured, hover over the setting and click Edit or Add another.
  5. For a new setting, enter a unique description.
  6. In the Allowed senders section, select the users who are allowed to send messages through the SMTP relay service:
    • Only registered Apps users in my domains—The sender must be a registered Google Workspace user in one of your domains.
    • Only addresses in my domains—The sender doesn't have to be a recognized Google Workspace user, but must be in one of your registered domains. This can be useful when you have third-party or custom applications that need to send messages.
    • Any addresses (not recommended)—The sender address can be anything, even an address outside of your domain.
      Important: The Any addresses option makes you more vulnerable to abuse, either through malware on your user's machines or by misconfiguration of your SMTP infrastructure. Therefore, we don't recommend this option.

      For the Any address option to work properly, you must configure your mail server either to use SMTP AUTH to identify the sending domain or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions below for configuring your specific server type. You must also configure your mail server in one of these ways if you send messages from a domain you don't own (such as yahoo.com), or if you send messages with an empty envelope-from, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

      If the envelope sender is not in one of your domains, the system changes the envelope sender from user@[domain you don't own] to postmaster@[your domain], where [your domain] is the domain the system receives from SMTP AUTH or from the HELO or EHLO command.

  7. In the Authentication section, check one or both boxes to set an authentication method:
    • Only accept mail from the specified IP addresses—The system only accepts mail sent from these IP addresses as coming from your domains.
    • Require SMTP Authentication—Enforces the use of SMTP authentication to identify the sending domain. Using this option requires your clients to connect via TLS. SMTP authentication verifies the connection by checking the user's Google Workspace username and password.
  8. If you chose to only accept messages from specified IP addresses, enter the IP addresses:
    1. Click Add IP RANGE.
    2. Enter a description for the IP address or range.
    3. Enter the IP address or range.

      Use the Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) format to enter an IP range; for example, 123.123.123.123. Use your own public IP address. The maximum number of IP addresses that you can specify in the range is 65,536. We recommend that you keep the allowed IP range as narrow as possible for security reasons.

      You can also use IPv6 address formats to specify an IP address; for example:

      1050:0000:0000:0000:0005:0600:300c:326b or

      1050:0:0:0:5:600:300c:326b or

      1050::5:600:300c:326b

    4. Check the Enabled box to enable (or uncheck to disable) this IP address or range.
    5. Click Save.

      Note: After you enter and save an IP address or range, you can enable or disable it in the future simply by checking the box to the left of the entry.

  9. In the Encryption section, check the Require TLS encryption box to require that the communication between your server and Google's server be TLS encrypted, including the message contents.

    Note: If your email server doesn't support TLS, do not check this box. If you check this box, Google rejects messages that are not encrypted.

  10. Click Add setting or Save
  11. At the bottom, click Save.

    Note: It can take up to 24 hours for changes to propagate to user accounts. You can track prior changes using the Admin console audit log.

Step 2: Point your on-premise outbound server to Google

Configure your on-premise outbound email server to point to smtp-relay.gmail.com. Click your server below for instructions.

Configuration notes

  • If you checked the box to require TLS encryption in step 9 above, configure your on-premise mail server to point to smtp-relay.gmail.com on port 587.
  • If you don't require TLS encryption, you can configure your on-premise mail server to point to smtp-relay.gmail.com on port 25, port 465, or port 587.

    Note: Without TLS encryption, you can't use SMTP authentication and must use IP address authentication.

  • We recommend that you configure your mail server to present a unique identifier (such as your domain name or the name of your mail server) in the HELO or EHLO command in the SMTP relay connections your server makes to Google. Avoid using generic names such as "localhost" or "smtp-relay.gmail.com," which can occasionally result in issues with DoS limits.
  • The SMTP Relay service doesn't support multiple envelope recipients (RCPT TO) when specifying a null envelope sender (MAIL FROM: <>).

Additional configuration requirements

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to further configure your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you don't own, such as yahoo.com.
  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you need to configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Configure Microsoft Exchange servers

Microsoft Exchange 2007/2010 without an Edge Server

If you don't have an Edge Server, follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for Exchange 2007/2010. In this case, set up Outbound Services on a Hub Transport server.

You don't need to increase the timeouts for Microsoft Exchange 2007/2010 mail servers. The default timeout settings are appropriate.

To create and configure a Send Connector on your Hub Connector Server:

  1. Click Organization Configurationand thenHub Transport.
  2. Click Send Connectors.
  3. Right-click in the actions pane and select New SMTP Send Connector.
  4. Name the connector Outbound.
  5. Click the list, select Internet, and then click Next.


     
  6. Click Add to open the Add Address Space dialog box.


     
  7. In the Domain field, enter an asterisk (*) so that all mail is routed through the new connector.


     
  8. Check the Include all subdomains box, and click OK.
  9. On the New SMTP Send Connector dialog box, click Next.
  10. Under Network settings, click the Route mail through the following smart hosts option.
  11. Click Add.


     
  12. In the "Add smart host" dialog box, enter smtp-relay.gmail.com in the Fully qualified domain name field.

  13. Under Configure smart host authentication settings, click the None option, and then click Next.


     
  14. On the Source Server page, click Add, and list each outbound hub server that will act as a bridgehead.




     
  15. Click OKand thenNext.
  16. On the New Connector page, click New.


     
  17. Click Finish to complete the send connector configuration.


     
  18. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.
  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you must configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Important: Google Workspace Support doesn't provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Microsoft Exchange issue, consult your Microsoft Exchange administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Microsoft Exchange scenarios. Any changes to your Microsoft Exchange configuration should be made at the discretion of your Microsoft Exchange administrator.

Microsoft Exchange 2007/2010 with an Edge Server

For Microsoft Exchange 2007/2010, different servers are assigned distinct, concrete roles. An Edge Server is one such role. The Edge Server connects all other Exchange Servers to the Internet, and provides filtering and security.

To send messages on an edge transport server, you must configure a send connector. Send connectors are created and edited in the Exchange Management Console. Follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for Exchange 2007/2010 on your Edge Server.

You don't need to increase the timeouts for Microsoft Exchange 2007/2010 mail servers. The default timeout settings are appropriate.

To create and configure a Send Connector on your Hub Connector Server:

  1. Click Organization Configurationand thenHub Transport.
  2. Click Send Connectors.
  3. Double-click the EdgeSync – [your site] to Internet connector, where [your site] is the name of your site.


     
  4. On the Address Space tab, verify that the asterisk (*) domain has been added.


     
  5. On the Network tab, un-check the Enable Domain Security (Mutual Auth TLS) box, and click the Route mail through the following smart hosts option.


     
  6. Click Add to display the Add smart host dialog box.
  7. Enter smtp-relay.gmail.com in the Fully qualified domain name field, and click OK.

  8. On the Source Server tab, verify that the appropriate edge subscriptions are defined.
  9. From the Exchange Management Shell, run the start-edgesynchronization command.


     
  10. On the Edge servers, verify that the new Send Connector settings have been received and are identical to those on the hub server.
  11. Check your receive connectors on the Edge server and verify the following:
    • The Network tab has the IP range of all hub servers included.
    • The Authentication tab has the Exchange Server Authentication option checked.
    • The Permission Groups tab has the Exchange Servers option checked.
  12. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.

  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you'll need to configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Microsoft Exchange issue, you should consult your Microsoft Exchange administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Microsoft Exchange scenarios. Any changes to your Microsoft Exchange configuration should be made at the discretion of your Microsoft Exchange administrator.

Microsoft Exchange 2000/2003

Change the retry interval and configure the smart host to route traffic to Google:

  1. Right-click SMTP Virtual Server and select Properties.

  2. Click the Delivery tab.

  3. Under Outbound, change the default retry interval values to the following:
    First retry interval (minutes): 1
    Second retry interval (minutes): 1
    Third retry interval (minutes): 3
    Subsequent retry interval (minutes): 5

  4. Click Connectors, right-click the SMTP Connector (or the Internet Mail SMTP Connector), and select Properties.

  5. On the General tab, type smtp-relay.gmail.com.

  6. Click OK to save the changes.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.

  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you must configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Microsoft Exchange issue, you should consult your Microsoft Exchange administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Microsoft Exchange scenarios. Any changes to your Microsoft Exchange configuration should be made at the discretion of your Microsoft Exchange administrator.

Configure HCL, Novell, and Sendmail servers

HCL Domino (formerly IBM Domino)

Follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for HCL Domino. These instructions, which were written for Domino R5/R6, are designed to work with a majority of deployments.

You don't need to change the timeout configuration for Domino R5/R6. You can use the default timeout settings.

Set up a smart host and adjust the Retry Interval:

  1. Open Domino Administrator.

  2. Click Administration and select the Configuration tab.

  3. Click Configurations.

  4. Double-click the name of your Domino Server.

  5. At the top of the window, click Edit Server Configuration.

  6. Select the Router/SMTP tab in the first row. This selects the Basics tab of the second row of tabs.

  7. Under Relay host for messages leaving the local internet domain, add smtp-relay.gmail.com.

  8. Select the Restrictions and Controls tab from the second row.

  9. Select the Transfer Controls tab from the third row.

  10. Set the configuration Initial Transfer Retry Interval to one minute or higher.

  11. Click Save & Close to exit.

  12. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.
  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you'll need to configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Domino issue, you should consult your Domino administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Domino scenarios. Any changes to your  Domino configuration should be made at the discretion of your Domino administrator.

Novell Groupwise

Follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for Novell Groupwise. These instructions are designed to work with a majority of deployments. You'll first need to increase server timeouts before setting up a smart host.

To increase server timeouts:

  1. Open the Groupwise ConsoleOne interface.

  2. Right-click the Internet Agent object and select Properties.

  3. Select the SMTP/MIME Settings tab and click Timeouts.

  4. Set the following values:
    Commands: 5 minutes
    Data: 3 minutes
    Connection Establishment: 2 minutes
    Initial Greeting: 5 minutes
    TCP Read: 5 minutes
    Connection Termination: 15 minutes

  5. Click Apply > OK.

To set up a smart host:

  1. Open the Groupwise ConsoleOne interface.

  2. Right-click the Internet Agent object and select Properties.

  3. If the SMTP/MIME Settings page is not the default page, select the SMTP/MIME tab and click Settings.

  4. Set the number of SMTP Send Threads to the maximum number of simultaneous connections the Groupwise server will safely support.

  5. Enter smtp-relay.gmail.com in the Relay Host for Outbound Messages field.

  6. Click Apply > OK.

  7. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.

  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you'll need to configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Novell Groupwise issue, you should consult your Novell Groupwise administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Novell Groupwise scenarios. Any changes to your Novell Groupwise configuration should be made at the discretion of your Novell Groupwise administrator.

Sendmail

Follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for Sendmail. These instructions are designed to work with a majority of deployments.

Changing server timeouts should not be necessary. In Sendmail, the server timeout is set in the Timeout.datafinal value. By default, it's set to one hour. If the Timeout.datafinal value has been changed to a lower value, raise the value to one hour.

To configure a smarthost for Sendmail:

  1. Add the following line to the /etc/mail/sendmail.mc file:
    define(`SMART_HOST', `smtp-relay.gmail.com')​​

  2. Stop and restart the sendmail server process.

  3. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.

  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you must configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Sendmail issue, you should consult your Sendmail administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Sendmail scenarios. Any changes to your Sendmail configuration should be made at the discretion of your Sendmail administrator.

Configure Apple, Qmail, and Postfix servers

Apple Macintosh OS X

Follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for Apple Macintosh OS X. These instructions are designed to work with a majority of deployments.

To set up a smart host:

  1. In Server Admin, select Mail and click Settings.

  2. Under Relay all mail through this host, enter smtp-relay.gmail.com.

  3. Click Save to close the Server Admin.

  4. Restart the mail service.

  5. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.
  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you'll need to configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of an Apple Macintosh OS X issue, you should consult your Apple Macintosh OS X administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Apple Macintosh OS X scenarios. Any changes to your Apple Macintosh OS X configuration should be made at the discretion of your Apple Macintosh OS X administrator.

Qmail

Follow these instructions to set up the SMTP relay service for Qmail. The instructions are designed to work with a majority of deployments.

You might first need to increase server timeouts before setting up a smart host. The default timeout is 1200 seconds, which is long enough. If this value has been previously changed, then edit the /var/qmail/timeoutsmtpd file and increase it to at least 900 seconds.

To set up a smart host for Qmail:

  1. Edit (or create) the /var/qmail/control/smtproutes file and append the following line:
    :smtp-relay.gmail.com:25
  2. If you have certain internal domains whose traffic should not be routed to Google, you'll want to add specific routing to the appropriate mail server to the /var/qmail/control/smtproutes file, using the following syntax:
    <InternalDomain>:<ServerForInternalDomain>
  3. Stop and restart the Qmail server.
  4. When you've completed your configuration, send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

In addition to the server configuration steps listed above, you might have to perform an additional configuration on your server if either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send mail from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.
  • You send mail without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

In these cases, you'll need to configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Qmail issue, you should consult your Qmail administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Qmail scenarios. Any changes to your Qmail configuration should be made at the discretion of your Qmail administrator.

Postfix

Follow the instructions below to set up the SMTP relay service for Postfix. These instructions are designed to work with a majority of deployments. There is no need to increase the timeouts for Postfix servers. The default timeout settings are appropriate.

To set up a smart host for Postfix:

  1. Add the following line to your configuration file (example path /etc/postfix/main.cf):
    relayhost = smtp-relay.gmail.com:25
  2. Restart Postfix by running the following command:
    # sudo postfix reload
  3. Send a test message to confirm that your outbound mail is flowing.

Determine whether either of the following is true:

  • You click the Any address option in the Allowed senders setting and you send messages from a domain you do not own, such as yahoo.com.
  • You send messages without a "From" address, such as non-delivery reports or vacation "out of office" notifications.

If either is true, configure your mail server to either ensure that the server is using SMTP AUTH to authenticate as a registered Google Workspace user or to present one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. See the instructions here.

Important: Google Workspace Support does not provide technical support for configuring on-premise mail servers or third-party products. In the event of a Postfix issue, you should consult your Postfix administrator. These instructions are designed to work with the most common Postfix scenarios. Any changes to your Postfix configuration should be made at the discretion of your Postfix administrator.

Difference between Entrances and Sessions - Analytics Help [gg-analytics-en]

Difference between Entrances and Sessions

Learn why the number of entrances can be different from the number of sessions in your reports.

At a glance

Analytics calculates Entrances in a different way than Sessions. Although you might expect the number of entrances to be the same as the number of sessions, you may see different values for these metrics in your reports.

Entrances is incremented on the first pageview or screenview hit of a session. In contrast, Sessions is incremented on the first hit of a session, regardless of hit type. Thus, there may be a discrepancy between Entrances and Pageviews or Screenviews for properties where the first hit of a session can be an event hit.

Discrepancies occur when you directly compare Entrances to Sessions, or when you use the Date dimension in some reports.

In depth

In this example, a user enters a website and navigates to two pages:

Enter → PageA → PageB → Exit

You would see the following data for each page:

  • PageA: 1 Entrance, 1 Session, 1 Pageview
  • PageB: 0 Entrances, 0 Sessions, 1 Pageview

The user entered on PageA (which also gets counted as a pageview). The user then moved to PageB before leaving the site and ending the session.

If the first hit of the session is an event hit instead of a page hit, the session might look like this:

Enter → Event 1 (associated with PageB via page parameter) → PageA → PageB → Exit

You would see the following data associated with each page in your reports:

  • PageA: 1 Entrance, 0 Sessions, 1 Pageview
  • PageB: 0 Entrances, 1 Session, 1 Pageview

In this example, the user entered the site and immediately triggered an Analytics event that was hosted on PageB (as defined by the site developer using the dl page parameter). Although the event was hosted on PageB, it's still an event hit and not a page hit, so Analytics can't attribute the entrance to PageB. The entrance still gets attributed to PageA, because the first page hit in the session is sent to Analytics when the user moves to PageA as the next step after triggering the event.

Now let's take a look at another situation to contrast what happened in the previous example. In the following example, you might see an equal number of entrances and page or screen views if both an Event and the first page hit of the session happened on the same page:

Enter → Event (associated with PageA via page parameter) → PageA → PageB → Exit

You would see the following data in your reports:

  • PageA: 1 Entrance, 1 Session, 1 Pageview
  • PageB: 0 Entrances, 0 Sessions, 1 Pageview

Here, the event hit was sent from PageA. PageA was also the first page to send a page hit. The entrance and the session are attributed to the same page in that session.

If you have a session with zero page or screen hits, you might see more sessions than entrances. If no page or screen hits are sent, Analytics can't count any entrances in your reports.

In this example, there are only two hits in the session, and both are event hits:

Enter → Event 1 → Event 2 → Exit

Therefore, there are zero entrances and zero pageviews in your reports:

  • 0 Entrances, 1 Session, 0 Pageviews

You might see this happen with your data if you create a segment in your reports that includes zero pageviews, and then apply it to a few different reports, like a custom report or the Events report.

Use Schooltime on Apple Watch - Apple Support

Use Schooltime on Apple Watch

Set schedule-based limits on a child's Apple Watch with Schooltime, or use it on your own watch whenever you want to focus.

What you need

To use Schooltime schedules on a child's Apple Watch, first set up the Apple Watch with Family Setup. This requires an Apple Watch Series 4 or later with cellular,* or Apple Watch SE with cellular, with watchOS 7 or later. You also need an iPhone 6s or later with iOS 14 or later for the initial watch setup. 

To use Schooltime on your own Apple Watch, you need watchOS 7 or later.

How to set a Schooltime schedule

  1. Open the Watch app on your iPhone. Tap All Watches, then tap your child's watch.
  2. Tap Done, then tap Schooltime.
  3. Turn on Schooltime, then tap Edit Schedule.
  4. Choose the days and times when you want Schooltime to be active.
  5. Tap Add Time if you want to set up more than one schedule in a day. For example, you can set up one schedule for morning classes and another for after lunch.

To change the Schooltime schedule, open the Watch app on your iPhone, then tap the information button  next to the managed watch. Tap Schooltime, then tap Edit Schedule.

Exit Schooltime temporarily

Your child can exit Schooltime temporarily to do things like check messages. To exit Schooltime, turn the Digital Crown, then tap Exit to confirm.

If a Schooltime schedule is active, Schooltime mode resumes automatically.

See Schooltime reports

The starting and ending times of all temporary Schooltime exits are reported in the Watch app on your iPhone. To see when Schooltime was exited, open the Watch app, tap All Watches, tap your child's Apple Watch, then tap Schooltime.

The report also appears on your child's Apple Watch. To see it, open the Settings app on their watch, then tap Schooltime.

Focus with Schooltime on your Apple Watch

You can use Schooltime on your own watch any time you want to focus. You might use Schooltime as an alternative to Do Not Disturb or Theater Mode when you want to silence notifications and check the time easily with fewer visual distractions.

First, add the Schooltime button to Control Center:

  1. Touch and hold the bottom of the Apple Watch screen, then swipe up to see Control Center.
  2. Scroll to the bottom, then tap Edit.
  3. Tap the add button  on the Schooltime button , then tap Done.

In Control Center, tap the Schooltime button to turn it on. To exit, turn the Digital Crown, then tap Exit to confirm.

Published Date: 

Create or change a gamer name - Google Play Help [gg-googleplay-en]

Create or change a gamer name

For some games on Google Play Games, you can sign in and play using a gamer name. A gamer name is a unique username linked to your Google Account.

By signing in to a game with your gamer name, you can:

  • Participate in leaderboards
  • Earn achievements
  • Automatically save your game
  • Play games across Android phones or tablets
  • Play with others through multiplayer modes on mobile, tablet, and Android TV games

If a game has a sign-in button for Play Games, you can use your gamer name with that game.

Create or edit a gamer name

On an Android phone or tablet

When you sign in to a game on Play Games or the Play Games app itself, you'll be asked to create a gamer name.

  1. When you see the prompt, tap Next.
  2. You'll see a default gamer name and profile image.
    • To change the gamer name, type over it.
    • To change the image, tap Edit Edit.
  3. Select the settings you'd like to keep.
  4. Tap Create.

On Android TV

You'll be asked to create a gamer name when you sign in to Android TV.

  1. You'll see a default profile image. To change, select another image.
  2. Select Next.
  3. Type over the default gamer name, and then select Next.
  4. Confirm your settings.
  5. Click Finish.

Learn more about changing your settings.

Check which account you're using

On an Android phone or tablet

  1. On your Android phone or tablet, open Play Games Play Games.
  2. At the bottom, tap Profile.
  3. Under your gamer name, you'll see what account you're using.

On Android TV

  1. Go to your device's main Settings menu.
  2. Under "Personal," select your account.
  3. To switch accounts, select Remove account.
  4. Follow the steps to add another account. Learn about changing your account on Android TV.

Tip: Learn how to report inappropriate gamer names.

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