Thursday, April 1, 2021

Add a group to another group - Google Workspace Admin Help [gg-a-en]

Add a group to another group

This page is for administrators. To manage groups for your own account, visit Google Groups help.

Sometimes it's helpful to add one group to another. For example, if you have a group for each team that's part of a larger department, you can save the time it takes to individually add each member to a larger department group.

Larger groups are called parent groups. Added groups are nested, child, or subgroups.

Why nest groups

You might nest groups to:

  • Have messages you post to the parent group posted to the child—You can do this if the child's posting permissions allow it.
  • Change members of the parent group by editing the child—This works if multiple parents contain the same child group.

Tip: To add and remove members automatically based on criteria such as department or location, see Manage membership automatically with dynamic groups.

How nested group permissions work


The following rules apply to nested groups:

Rule Description
Members of child groups are not direct members of parent groups

Because child group members don't belong to parent groups, they:

  • Can't leave the parent group.
  • Don't appear as members of the parent group.
  • Can't change their membership settings in the parent group.
Child group members inherit some permissions from parent groups If a Google Docs file is shared with a parent group, child group members can also access the doc.
Child group members may post to the parent group If the parent group allows all members of the group to post, members of the child group can also post to the parent group.
Child group members may receive messages posted to parent groups If you want child group members to receive messages posted to the parent group, set the Who can post permission permission for the child group to All organization members. See Set permissions for managing a group.

Otherwise, child group members may not receive messages posted to the parent group.

Add a group to your group

  1. Sign in to your Google Admin console.

    Sign in using your administrator account (does not end in

  2. From the Admin console Home page, go to Groups.
  3. On the Groups list, point to the group that will become the parent group.
  4. In the parent group row, click Add members.
  5. Enter the name of the group you want to add to the parent group.
    Note: Use commas to separate multiple group names.
  6. Click Add to group.

What’s new in Pages for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch - Apple Support

What's new in Pages for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

Learn about the new features in Pages 11.0 for iOS and iPadOS.

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Precise editing controls

Use new editing controls in the Arrange Inspector to adjust the look and placement of objects.

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Quick value entry

Use onscreen keypads to enter exact values for text size, spacing, table size, and more.

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Easily select multiple objects

Add or remove objects or table cells from a selection by tapping or dragging across them.

And more

  • A new option in More > Settings > Editing to always open documents in edit view.
  • Add phone number links to table cells, text objects, and shapes.
  • Scribble support for Portuguese, French, Italian, German, and Spanish languages. 

Get complete step-by-step instructions and information on all the features in Pages for iOS on your iPhone and iPod touch, or Pages for iPadOS on your iPad.


New in Pages 10.2 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Use Scribble to write by hand with Apple Pencil, and your words will automatically convert to text.Learn more
  • Select from new report templates to help you get started.
  • Easily find pictures and videos using new zoom and search capabilities in the redesigned image picker.2
  • Enhance your documents with a variety of new, editable shapes.

1. Scribble Requires iPadOS 14 and currently supports English, Traditional Chinese, and Simplified Chinese.
2. Requires iOS 14 or iPadOS 14.

New in Pages 10.1 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Use reading view to scroll and zoom your documents without unintentional edits. Learn more
  • Play YouTube and Vimeo videos right in your documents.* Learn more
  • Easily add captions and titles to images, videos, shapes, and other objects. Learn more

* This feature may not be available in all countries or regions.

New in Pages 10.0 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Use Pages with Magic Keyboard, a mouse, or a trackpad for a new way to work with your documents. Requires iPadOS 13.4. Learn more
  • Select from a variety of gorgeous new templates to help you get started.
  • Add a drop cap to make a paragraph stand out with a large, decorative first letter. Learn more
  • Add a Pages document to a shared iCloud Drive folder to automatically start collaborating. Requires iPadOS 13.4 or iOS 13.4. Learn more
  • Apply a color, gradient, or image to the background of any document. Learn more
  • Touch and hold, then drag across multiple objects to select them. Learn more
  • Easily access recently used templates in a redesigned template chooser.
  • Print or export a PDF of your document with comments included. Learn more
  • Edit shared documents while offline and your changes will upload when you're back online. Requires iPadOS or iOS 13. Learn more
  • Enhance your documents with a variety of new, editable shapes.

New in Pages 5.2 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Enable Dark Mode to emphasize your content.* Learn more
  • On iPadOS, use Pages in multiple spaces or with two documents side by side in Split View. Learn more
  • Set the default font and font size used for all new documents created from basic templates. Learn more
  • Support for new iOS 13 and iPadOS text editing and navigation gestures.* Learn more
  • Use custom fonts installed from the App Store.*
  • Capture a screenshot of an entire document, mark it up, then easily share it as a PDF.*
  • Access files from a USB drive, external hard drive, or file server.* Learn more
  • Listen to an audio representation of your chart using VoiceOver. Learn more
  • Add accessibility descriptions to audio, video, and drawings. Learn more
  • Improved accessibility of exported PDFs.
  • Support for HEVC-formatted movies, enabling reduced file size while preserving visual quality. Learn more
  • Select multiple objects by pressing Shift or Command on a hardware keyboard.

Requires iOS 13 or iPadOS.

New in Pages 5.1 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Style your text by filling it with gradients or images, or by applying new outline styles. Learn more
  • Customize lists by choosing from new bullet types, changing the size and color of bullets, creating custom bullets, adjusting indentation levels, and more. Learn more
  • Choose Learn Spelling to add a word to the spelling dictionary. Learn more
  • Create links from text to other pages in a page layout document. Learn more
  • Copy and paste pages or sections between documents. Learn more
  • Use new chart editing capabilities to change the style of individual series, adjust spacing between columns, add trendlines, and more. Learn more
  • Adjust the appearance of cell borders in tables. Learn more
  • Place images, shapes, and equations inline in text boxes so they move with text. Learn more
  • Choose whether Apple Pencil is used to start drawing or to select and scroll — or toggle between these options via double-tap using a supported Apple Pencil. Learn more
  • Using face detection, subjects in photos are intelligently positioned in placeholders and objects.
  • Reapply a master page so text and media placeholders return to their default style and position. Learn more
  • Create books using new templates for novels (available in English only).

New in Pages 5.0 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Use the new table of contents view to easily navigate your document or book. Learn more
  • Save custom shapes for use in other documents and access them on any device using iCloud. Learn more
  • Create templates to use as a model for new documents, and access them on any device using iCloud. Learn more
  • Insert a table of contents onto a page in a word-processing document. Learn more
  • Create image placeholders to easily replace images without affecting the formatting of your page. Learn more
  • Switch your document between word processing and page layout. Learn more
  • Improved performance while collaborating on documents.
  • Edit grouped objects while collaborating.
  • In Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, you can now type vertically in your entire document or in an individual text box. Learn more

New in Pages 4.3 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

Offer your books for download or purchase on Apple Books. Learn more

New in Pages 4.2 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Animate your drawings and watch them come to life in a document or book. Learn more
  • Lines stretch to keep margin annotations in place, and annotations now anchor to table cells.
  • Easily save drawings to Photos or Files, or share them with others. Learn more
  • Support for Siri Shortcuts. Requires iOS 12. Learn more
  • Adjust the line spacing before and after a paragraph, and set the width for columns of text.
  • Pages now supports Dynamic Type.
  • Enhance your documents with a variety of new editable shapes.
  • Performance and stability improvements.

New in Pages 4.1 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Easily record, edit, and play audio directly on a page. Learn more
  • Smart annotation marks now stretch and wrap to follow your text as you edit. 
  • Quickly switch between drawing and smart annotation modes on iPad. Learn more
  • A new option in Settings > Pages lets you use Apple Pencil to select and scroll on iPad. Learn more
  • Track text changes in shapes and text boxes.
  • Add colors and images to backgrounds in page layout documents. 
  • Give charts a new look with rounded corners on columns and bars.
  • Add mathematical equations to page layout documents using LaTeX or MathML notation. Learn more
  • Enhance your documents with a variety of new editable shapes.
  • Add gradient and image fills to shapes and text boxes.
  • Easily browse templates by category.
  • Save a different auto scroll speed per document when using presenter mode.
  • Improved support for Arabic and Hebrew. Learn more

New in Pages 4.0 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Draw, write, and annotate using Apple Pencil on supported devices, or use your finger. Learn more
    • Easily add drawings with pen, pencil, crayon, and fill tools.
    • Use Smart Annotation Beta to add comments and marks that stay anchored to their associated text.
  • Use new book templates to create interactive EPUB books. Learn more
  • Collaborate in real time on documents stored in Box. Learn more
  • Add an image gallery to view a collection of photos on the same page.
  • Use presenter mode to easily read and auto scroll text while giving a speech.
  • Create and edit paragraph styles and character styles.
  • View pages side by side as you work. Learn more
  • Turn on facing pages to format your document as two-page spreads. Learn more
  • Create master pages to keep the design consistent across your page layout document. 
  • Change your document orientation to landscape or portrait.
  • Enhance your documents with a variety of new editable shapes. 
  • Use donut charts to visualize data in an engaging new way.
  • Use conditional highlighting in tables to change the appearance of a cell when the value meets specified conditions.
  • New option to automatically format fractions as you type.

New in Pages 3.3 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Redesigned document manager makes it easier to access files stored in iCloud Drive or with third-party storage providers.
  • On iPad, drag and drop text, images, and more between Pages and other apps. Learn more
  • Work more efficiently on iPad using Slide Over, Split View, and the new Dock. Learn more
  • Quickly access and organize your documents using the new Files app. Learn more
  • Use Unite, Intersect, Subtract, and Exclude commands to create new shapes.
  • Use Align, Distribute, Flip Vertical, and Flip Horizontal commands to quickly arrange objects. 
  • Support for Break Apart command for complex shapes from the shapes library. Learn more
  • Select a paragraph of text with a triple-tap gesture.
  • Improved PDF export lets you view a document's table of contents in the sidebar in PDF viewer apps.
  • Performance and stability improvements.

New in Pages 3.2 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Enhance your documents using a library of over 500 professionally drawn shapes. Learn more
  • Reply to comments and join threaded conversations. Learn more
  • Add linked text boxes so text easily flows from one place to another. Learn more
  • New auto-correction and text replacement options save time while typing. Learn more
  • New page thumbnail view allows you to easily navigate your document.
  • Export documents as fixed layout ePub books. Learn more
  • Change margins, headers, footers, and paper size while collaborating. Learn more

New in Pages 3.1 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Format text as superscript or subscript, use ligatures, and change text background color.
  • Add bookmarks to easily link from one part of your document to another. Learn more
  • Add elegant mathematical equations using LaTeX or MathML notation. Learn more
  • Quickly open password-protected documents using Touch ID on the new MacBook Pro with Touch Bar. Learn more
  • Import and export documents in Rich Text Format (RTF). Learn more
  • Easily replace missing fonts in your document.
  • New leader lines make pie charts easier to read.
  • Customize dates, times, and currencies for your language or region.

New in Pages 3.0 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

  • Real-time collaboration (feature in beta).
    • Edit a document with others at the same time in Pages on Mac, iPad, iPhone, and
    • Share your document publicly or with specific people.
    • See who else is in a document.
    • See participants' cursors as they're editing. Learn more
  • A new format pane takes advantage of the display on the 12.9-inch iPad Pro.
  • Improved downloading – Pages now downloads documents from iCloud only when you're ready to work on them.
  • Open and edit Pages '05 documents. Learn more
  • Wide color gamut image support.
  • Enhanced keyboard navigation and additional keyboard shortcuts.
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Options for limiting group access & activity - Google Workspace Admin Help [gg-a-en]

Options for limiting group access & activity

This page is for administrators. To manage groups for your own account, visit Google Groups help.

As a Groups administrator, you can restrict access to your organization's groups, as well as what users can do in your groups.

No matter what option you select here, group addresses still appear as suggestions when typing addresses in Gmail or Calendar invitations.

When Groups for Business is turned off

If you turn off Groups for Business, then as an admin, you have full control over groups.

Manage all groups and group memberships

As an admin, you can use your Admin console to:

Manage a group's access

You can also use your Admin console to set access controls for each group. For example, you can limit:

  • Who can contact group owners
  • Who can view members or conversations
  • Who can post to the group

Learn how: Change a group's access settings

When Groups for Business is turned on

If you turn on Groups for Business, you as the admin can control groups in all of the ways described above. In addition, you can control how users access, use, and manage your organization's groups in the Google Groups app (

Organization-level controls

In your Admin console, you can set organization-wide options for how users can access and work with groups in the Google Groups app, including whether users can create groups. You can set restrictions such as:

  • Only users in your organization can access your groups.
  • Only administrators can create groups.
  • If users are allowed to create groups, group owners can't:
    • Add external members to their groups.
    • Allow external users to send messages their groups.

Learn more: Set organization-wide policies for using groups

Group-level access and activity

Group owners and managers (including admins) can set additional group-level options to restrict user access and activity in the Google Groups app. Depending on your organization-level settings, in Google Groups, group owners and managers (including admins) can set restrictions on who can:

  • View or join the group
  • View or post messages or view members
  • Manage group members and conversations

Learn how: Set permissions for managing a group

Group owners and managers can also turn conversation history and message moderation on or off and set other options to limit user activity in the group. For an overview of the features that group owners and managers can control, see Add features and manage conversations in Google Groups.

Group ownership

In addition, group owners (including admins) can:

Tip: If Groups for Business is on and you update any of a group's settings, another owner or manager can modify the settings again. To instead prevent changes to your settings, make owners and managers regular members. That way, only you (the administrator) can customize the group's policies and permissions.

Related topics

Turn Private Browsing on or off on your iPhone or iPod touch - Apple Support

Turn Private Browsing on or off on your iPhone or iPod touch

When you use Private Browsing, you can visit websites without creating a search history in Safari.

Private Browsing protects your private information and blocks some websites from tracking your search behavior. Safari won't remember the pages you visit, your search history, or your AutoFill information.

How to turn on Private Browsing

  1. Open Safari on your iPhone or iPod touch.
  2. Tap the new page button 
  3. Tap Private, then tap Done.

While Private Browsing is on, Safari appears black or dark instead of white or gray.

How to turn off Private Browsing

  1. Open Safari on your iPhone or iPod touch.
  2. Tap the new page button .
  3. Tap Private, then tap Done.

Learn more

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Gmail sending limits in Google Workspace - Google Workspace Admin Help [gg-a-en]

Gmail sending limits in Google Workspace

To keep systems healthy and accounts safe, Google limits the number of Gmail messages users can send per day, and the number of recipients per message.

If your users exceed an email sending limit, they'll get an error message, such as:

  • You have reached a limit for sending email.
  • You reached a Gmail sending limit.
  • You exceeded the maximum recipients.

After reaching one of these limits, users can't send new messages for up to 24 hours. However, they can still access their Google Workspace account, get incoming email, and use their other Google services. After this suspension period, sending limits are reset and users can resume sending mail.

Limits for trial accounts

You can try Google Workspace with a free trial account.

Free trial account limits

Google Workspace free trial accounts have different limits than paid accounts, and limits aren't increased during the free trial period.

To learn how to convert to a paid account, cancel your free trial account, and find out when your trial ends, go to About your Google Workspace free trial.

Convert to a paid account

To convert to a paid account, follow the steps in About your Google Workspace free trial.

Limits increase for paid accounts

After you convert from a free trial account to a paid subscription, your account sending limits automatically increase when both of the following are true:

  • Your domain has cumulatively paid at least USD 100 (or equivalent)
  • At least 60 days have passed since reaching that payment threshold

If you bought your domain from Google, the cost to increase your limits is the cost of your domain plus US 100.

Limits for Drive and Groups with free trial accounts

When using Google Drive through a Google Workspace free trial account, you can share Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides with people inside and outside your organization. If you reach the Gmail trial limit, you can continue to share with people outside your organization, but they won't get the sharing email notifications.

When using Google Groups through a Google Workspace free trial account, you might experience the following limits:

  • Your sending limits might be lower than the limits in Sending limits, below.
  • You can only send group email to recipients inside your organization.
  • You can't turn on autoreplies to people outside your organization, even if they're members of a group.
  • You can't allow messages flagged by Google's spam filters to be posted directly to a group.

Gmail sending limits

Sending limits can change without notice. Limits per day are applied over a rolling 24-hour period, not a set time of day.


Limit type Limit
Messages per day
Daily sending limit*
2,000 (500 for trial accounts)
Messages auto-forwarded
Messages automatically forwarded to another account, not included in the daily sending limit
Auto-forward mail filters
Account filters that automatically forward mail
Recipients per message
Addresses in the To, Cc, and Bcc fields of a single email*
2,000 total per message
(maximum of 500 external recipients)
Recipients per message sent via SMTP (by POP or IMAP users) or the Gmail API
Addresses in the To, Cc, and Bcc fields of a single email. Includes email sent using or*
Total recipients per day
Email addresses (recipients) count each time a message is sent; 5 emails sent to 10 addresses count as 50 total recipients.*
External recipients per day
Email addresses outside your primary domain, including domain aliases and alternate domains

Unique recipients per day
Each email address (each unique recipient) counts only once per day:

  • 5 emails sent to 10 different addresses count as 10 unique recipients*
  • 5 emails sent to a single address count as 1 unique recipient*
3,000 (2,000 external, 500 external for trial accounts)

*Applies to internal and external recipients

What also counts toward users' limits

  • Mail sent from a user's alternate address, or alias
  • Mail sent by delegated users
  • Mail sent from Gmail's vacation responder

Gmail sending limits for mobile devices

When you use the Gmail for mobile app in Google Sync mode, the same Sending limits apply as when you use Gmail in a web browser.

When you use the Gmail for mobile app in IMAP mode, the IMAP sending limits apply.

Restore a suspended Gmail account

Administrators can check the Users section of the Google Admin console to find details about which limits were reached. Sometimes administrators can restore access. For instructions, go to Restore a suspended Gmail account.

Accounts that are detected as sending spam might be permanently restricted from sending email. For details, go to Google's Spam and abuse policy.

Best practices for sending mail

To help reduce the likelihood that Gmail blocks your messages or marks your messages as spam, follow the guidelines in Prevent mail to Gmail users from being blocked or sent to spam.

Related topics

Charges and your average daily budget - Google Ads Help [gg-google-ads-en]

Charges and your average daily budget

Internet traffic is like an ocean. Some days, there will be small waves. Other days, there will be great big ones. So, if your ads don't show up much because of low traffic, then we'll make up for that by showing them more when traffic's higher.

That's why we allow up to 2 times the clicks in a day than your average daily budget allows for campaigns that aren't paying for conversions. This is called overdelivery. And it's a good thing: if we end up showing your ad too much -- to the point where you accrue more costs than your average daily budget allows for over a billing cycle -- then we'll give you a credit for those extra costs.

Overdelivery and your average daily budget

As we mentioned, you might see that your advertising costs each day are a little higher or lower than what you set for your average daily budget. If you do, don't worry -- over a month-long billing cycle, you won't be charged more than your average daily budget would've allowed for over 30.4 days.

Let's explain that number.

Basically, 30.4 is the average number of days in a month (365 days in a year / 12 months = 30.417). Google multiplies your average daily budget by this number so we know what your budget should be over the course of a month.


Let's say you set your budget at $5 a day and your billing cycle is 30 days. Over the course of the month, you notice that your charges vary. Some days you're charged $2, on others you're charged $10. But at the end of the month, your charges won't exceed $152 (that's 30.4 multiplied by your $5 budget). So even though your campaign costs tipped above and fell below your $5 budget from day to day, at the end of the month, you're still charged no more than what you budgeted.

The waves of Internet traffic might make your daily costs go up and down. But at the end of the month, despite those unpredictable waves, you'll find your costs at right where you expected them to be.

Check for overdelivery

Sometimes we deliver over your monthly budget. In those cases, we'll credit the overdelivery cost back. If you'd like to see whether we've given you overdelivery credits, follow these steps:

  1. Sign in to your Google Ads account.
  2. From the upper right corner of your account, click the reports icon .
  3. Under "Predefined reports (Dimensions)" drop down menu, select Other, then click Billed cost.

You'll see a report that lists served and billed costs for each campaign. To calculate overdelivery, subtract "Billed cost" from "Served cost." To perform these calculations in bulk, click the download icon in the top right of the report and save as a .csv file.

By default, the data is displayed daily and sorted by served cost. If you wish to see for a certain date range, remove the "Day" filter and set a date range in the upper right section above the table.

Visit Google Ads

Common questions about overdelivery

Will overdelivery of my average daily budget increase the maximum that I can be charged for the month?

No. The monthly charging limit remains unchanged. Even though you may see higher spend on some days, this overdelivery is balanced by days of the month during which your spend is below your average daily budget.

When exactly will my spend exceed my average daily budget?

There are no changes to how spend is prioritized throughout the month. Google Ads will continue to optimize your spend based on daily fluctuations in traffic, what you've spent on previous days of the month, and other factors.

In general, spend may exceed your average daily budget on days that are more likely to drive clicks and conversions.

If my campaigns aren't limited by budget, will overdelivery affect my spend?

If your campaign isn't limited by budget, your monthly spend will remain the same. There are no changes to how campaigns that aren't limited by budget work.

If your campaigns are limited by budget for one or more days in the month, then you'll see some variation in your daily spend. However, you'll never be charged more than the monthly charging limit. Flexibility in your budget helps balance days with low traffic by increasing spend on days that are likely to drive more clicks and conversions.

Learn more about what it means to be limited by budget.

What happens if I adjust my average daily budget during the month?

There's no change to how adjusting your budget impacts what you'll be charged for the rest of the month. As before, when you change your budget, your spend for the rest of the month won't exceed your new average daily budget multiplied by the remaining days in the month.

For example, let's say you set an average daily budget of $10 on the first day of September, and you change it to $20 on day 16. For the first 15 days of the month, your spend will be capped by your monthly charging limit of $10 * 30 (number of days in September). After changing your average daily budget to $20, your spend for the rest of the month will be $20 multiplied by the remaining 15 days.

For the first 15 days of the month, your spend may be more than half your monthly charging limit. This is because spend may exceed your average daily budget on some of those days. However, as soon as you change your budget, you won't be charged more than $20 multiplied by the remaining days in the month. If you already had ad spend on September 16 before you changed your budget, your total spend from September 16-30 could be slightly higher than $300.

Learn more about why costs might exceed your average daily budget.

Is it possible to opt-out of overdelivery?

There's no opt-out. Overdelivery is designed to help you optimize spend for days of the month when you're more likely to get clicks and conversions.

Can I set a cap on my daily spend?

No. You won't be able to place a cap on your daily spend using your campaign's average daily budget.

Will I be able to set a monthly budget?

Currently, you can't set a monthly budget within Google Ads. However, you can use your average daily budget multiplied by the number of days in the month to determine what your monthly spend will be. Learn more about campaign budgets.

Set up your HomePod, HomePod mini, Apple TV, or iPad as a home hub - Apple Support

Set up your HomePod, HomePod mini, Apple TV, or iPad as a home hub

You need a home hub to control your HomeKit accessories while you're away from your home, grant access to the people you trust, and automate your accessories to do what you want, when you want.

iPad showing the home screen of the Home app.

Set up HomePod, HomePod mini, or Apple TV as a home hub

HomePod, HomePod mini, and Apple TV automatically set up as home hubs, so you can control your home even when you're not in it, and run automations right away. Just make sure that you're signed in to iCloud on your iOS device or Apple TV with the Apple ID that you used to set up your HomeKit accessories in the Home app.

HomePod, HomePod mini, and Apple TV aren't available in all countries and regions.

Set up iPad as a home hub

  1. Tap Settings > [your name] > iCloud and make sure that you're signed in to iCloud with the Apple ID that you used to set up your HomeKit accessories in the Home app.
  2. Scroll down and check that Home is turned on.
  3. Tap Settings > Home and turn on Use this iPad as a Home Hub.

To use your iPad as a home hub, it must remain in your home, powered on, and connected to your home Wi-Fi network.

If your home hub isn't working as expected

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How remarketing works - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-authorizedbuyers-en]

How remarketing works

This guide provides information on user lists and remarketing using the UserLists resource in the Authorized Buyers API. You can also use other Google products or real-time bidder to build and target user lists.

Policy requirement

If you're setting up a remarketing campaign and placing the remarketing tag on your site, you need to follow the Interest-Based Advertising Policy.

How do I participate in remarketing?

In order to participate in remarketing, you need to create at least one user list, which is simply a list of web visitors (cookie IDs) whom you would like to re-engage with a compelling message.

You can create user lists for any of your webpages. For example, you could create a user list for visitors to your homepage. When people visit that page, their cookie ID is added to the remarketing list.

Learn more via the developers' guides in REST Resource: buyers.userLists and  Uploading to User Lists.


An online shopper is looking for new running shoes, so they goes to to browse the different styles. However, the shopper leaves without completing a purchase.

Because the shopper is a valuable potential buyer, could add the shopper to a "Shopper" list. This will enable to deliver an ad to this shopper and the other potential buyers on that list with a call-to-action that will encourage them to return to the website to complete a purchase.

Broad versus narrow lists

Try to strike a balance between creating very detailed user lists and broader user lists. While detailed user lists let you further target your message, you'll get the most scale and volume with broader lists. Creating relevant and meaningful user lists is the primary key to success for remarketing.

If you have questions, consult with your account manager.

Move saved locations to a new computer - Google Earth Help [gg-earth-en]

Move saved locations to a new computer

You can move locations you've saved in Google Earth to a different computer. Saved locations are called placemarks, and they're automatically saved to your computer.

Step 1: Find location file


  1. Press Ctrl + Esc + r or Windows key + r.
  2. . In the "Open" box, enter "%USERPROFILE%\AppData\LocalLow\Google\GoogleEarth".
    • If you're using Windows XP, enter "%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\Google\GoogleEarth" instead.
  3. Select OK.
  4. In the directory, you'll see a file called "myplaces.kml". This file has your saved locations.
    • Note: If you want to replace a corrupted myplaces.kml file, use "myplaces.backup.kml."


  1. Open the Finder.
  2. At the top of the screen, click Go. Hold down Option or Alt, then click Library and then Application support and then Google Earth.
  3. You'll see a file called "myplaces.kml". This file has your saved locations.
    • Note: If you want to replace a corrupted myplaces.kml file, use "myplaces.backup.kml."

Step 2: Move location file

There are a few ways you can transfer the file with your saved locations to another computer:

  • Save the file in Google Drive
  • Email the file to yourself
  • Save the file to a USB drive

Tip: Back up your myplaces.kml file to a removable device, like USB drive.

If you can’t install macOS Big Sur on certain 13-inch MacBook Pro computers from 2013 and 2014 - Apple Support

If you can't install macOS Big Sur on certain 13-inch MacBook Pro computers from 2013 and 2014

Follow these steps if you can't install macOS Big Sur on a MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013) or MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Mid 2014).

This article has been archived and is no longer updated by Apple.

When you install macOS Big Sur on these Mac models, the installer might say that the update cannot be installed on this computer, or your Mac might start up to a blank screen or circle with a line through it 

If your Mac no longer starts up successfully, these steps might help resolve the issue:

  1. Press and hold the power button on your Mac for at least 10 seconds, then release. If your Mac is on, it turns off.
  2. Unplug all external devices from your Mac, including any displays and USB accessories, and remove any card inserted in the SDXC card slot. Then turn your Mac on.
  3. If the issue persists, reset the SMC as described for notebook computers with a nonremovable battery.
  4. If none of these solutions work, please contact Apple Support for further assistance.

This article will be updated as more information becomes available.

Published Date: 

Membership duration - Authorized Buyers Help [gg-authorizedbuyers-en]

Membership duration

When you create a user list, you can decide how long a visitor's cookie stays on your list if that person doesn't visit your site again. This setting is the user list's membership duration.

Membership duration is 30 days, by default, but we recommend choosing a duration related to the length of time you expect your ad to be relevant for the user. In general, we recommend you align the membership duration with the length of your sales cycle.


If you sell movie tickets, you might select a membership duration of a few days only, but if you sell cars, you might choose a duration of a few months. While it might not take too much time for people to decide they want to buy movie tickets, it generally takes longer for someone to decide to buy a car.

If you sell Valentine's Day gifts, you might choose a membership duration of a year so that you can reach the customers on your list when Valentine's Day comes around the next year.

The visitor's cookie is deleted from the list at the end of the duration if there's no activity. If the person visits your site again, the clock is reset for another 30 days or for the duration you've set.

The maximum membership duration is 540 days. If someone continuously visits a page, the clock is reset, and the visitor's cookie stays on the list.

If you change the membership duration after a list has already accumulated some cookies, the new duration is applied to both cookies that are currently on the list and cookies that were added to the list after the change. 


If your cookie duration is 60 days and you shorten it to 30 days, cookies that joined the list 31 - 60 days ago will be removed.

Conversely, if your duration is 30 days and you extend it to 60 days, cookies already on the list will stay on the list for up to 60 days

The number of users that you see in your account may not immediately reflect the right count after you change the membership duration.

How to optimize membership duration

Segment visitors based on how recently they visited your site

You can take advantage of the duration settings to create user lists for visitors who came in the past seven days, 14 days, and 30 days. You might see a greater response from people who have visited your site within the past seven days, so you can use one ad for visitors who are on your 7-14 day list, and a separate ad for visitors on your 15-30 day list.

Keep in mind that decreasing the duration could limit the number of potential customers you can reach.

Bid more or less, depending on the list

You might see a greater response from users who have visited your site more recently, so you can bid higher for users on your seven-day and 14-day lists, and bid lower for users who have been on the list for 15-30 days.

Duplicate your lists

If you choose a duration that's less than 30 days, you may consider creating a duplicate list that has a duration of 30 days or longer. This allows you to still remarket to those who have considered your brand in case they take longer than average to make a purchase decision.

Add pages to your blog - Blogger Help [gg-blogger-en]

Add pages to your blog

Important: You can't use specific posts as pages.

You can create pages for consistent content like "About" or "Contact." Pages can show up as tabs at the top of your blog or as links on the side.

Step 1: Show your pages

  1. Sign in to Blogger.
  2. In the top left, select a blog.
  3. From the menu on the left, click Layout.
  4. In the section you want your pages to show, click Add a Gadget.
  5. In the window, next to "Pages", click Add .
  6. Set your settings and click Save.
  7. To save the arrangement, in the bottom right, click Save Save.

Tip: To change where your page shows up, drag the gadget to a new location.

Step 2: Create, edit, or delete pages

Important: There's no limit to the number of pages you can have in one blog. 

Create a new page
  1. Sign in to Blogger.
  2. In the top left, select a blog.
  3. From the menu on the left, click Pages.
  4. In the top left, click New Page.
  5. Enter a page title and other information.
  6. In the top right, click Save, Preview page, or Publish.
Create a page with a link to another website
  1. Sign in to Blogger.
  2. In the top left, select a blog.
  3. From the menu on the left, click Layout.
  4. In the "Page List (Top)" section next to "Pages," click Edit Edit.
  5. Under "Pages to show," click + Add external link.
  6. Enter the page title and URL and click Save Link and then Save.
Edit a page
  1. Sign in to Blogger.
  2. In the top left, select a blog.
  3. From the menu on the left, click Pages.
  4. Click on the title of the page you want to edit.
  5. Edit your page. 
  6. In the top right, click Save, Preview page, or Publish.
Delete a page
  1. Sign in to Blogger.
  2. In the top left, select a blog.
  3. From the menu on the left, click Pages.
  4. Point to the page you want to remove.
  5. Click Delete this page and then Delete page.

Step 3: Select the pages to show

  1. From the menu on the left, click Layout.
  2. In the "Pages" section, click Edit Edit.
  3. Select the pages you want to show and click Save.
  4. To save the arrangement, in the bottom right, click Save Save.

TV providers that let you sign in on your iPhone, iPad, or Apple TV - Apple Support

TV providers that let you sign in on your iPhone, iPad, or Apple TV

Apps that support TV Provider Authentication might differ between iOS, iPadOS, and tvOS, and also based on your provider.


  • Proximus Pickx


  • VMedia


  • Canal Digital



  • Canal Digital


  • MonacoTelecomTV


  • Vodafone GigaTV


Hong Kong

  • Viu


  • eir


  • Canal Digital



  • MEO
  • NOS


  • Ooredoo Qatar


  • Viu



  • Agile TV


  • Canal Digital
  • Com Hem
  • Telenor Sverige


  • Salt
  • Sunrise



  • Taiwan Mobile


  • AIS
  • Viu


United States


  • Access Montana
  • AcenTek
  • Acme Communications
  • Adams Cable Service
  • Albany Mutual Telephone
  • Algona Municipal Utilities
  • All West Communications
  • Allen's Communications
  • Alliance Communications
  • ALLO Communications
  • Alpine Communications
  • Altice One
  • American Broadband
  • American Broadband Missouri
  • American Community Networks
  • American Warrior Networks
  • Amherst Telephone/Tomorrow Valley
  • Antietam Broadband
  • Arkwest Communications
  • Armstrong
  • Arthur Mutual Telephone Company
  • Arvig
  • Ashland Home Net
  • Astrea
  • AT&T TV
  • ATC Broadband
  • ATC Communications
  • Atlantic Broadband
  • ATMC
  • Auburn Essential Services
  • Ayersville Communications
  • Baldwin Lightstream
  • Ballard TV
  • Bardstown Cable TV
  • Bay Country Communications
  • Beaver Creek Cooperative Telephone
  • Beaver Valley Cable
  • Bee Line Cable
  • Beehive Broadband
  • BEK Communications
  • BELD
  • Bellevue Municipal Cable
  • Belzoni Cable
  • Ben Lomand Connect / BLTV
  • BendBroadband
  • Benton Cablevision
  • Bledsoe Telephone Cooperative
  • Bloomingdale Communications
  • Blue Devil Cable
  • Blue Ridge Communications
  • Blue Stream
  • Blue Valley Tele-Communications
  • BOLT Fiber Optic Services
  • Brandenburg Telephone Co.
  • BrightRidge
  • Bristol Tennessee Essential Services
  • Broadstripe
  • BTC Communications
  • BTC Vision - Nahunta
  • Buckeye Broadband
  • Bulloch Telephone Cooperative
  • Butler-Bremer Communications
  • C Spire SNAP
  • Cable Co-op
  • Cable Services Inc.
  • CableAmerica
  • Cam-Tel Company
  • Camellia Communication - Hayneville Telephone
  • Cameron Communications
  • CapRock Tv
  • Carnegie Cable
  • Carolina Mountain Cablevision
  • CAS Cable
  • Catalina Broadband Solutions
  • CC Communications
  • CDE Lightband
  • Cedar Falls Utilities
  • Celect Communications
  • CentraCom
  • Central Arkansas Telephone Cooperative Cable TV
  • Central Scott / CSTV
  • CenturyLink Prism
  • Chaparral CableVision
  • Chariton Valley Communication Corporation, Inc.
  • Chatmoss Cablevision
  • Cherokee Communications
  • Chesapeake Bay Communications
  • Chesnee Communications
  • Cim-Tel Cable, LLC.
  • Cincinnati Bell Fioptics
  • Citizens Cablevision - Floyd, VA
  • Citizens Cablevision, Inc.
  • Citizens Fiber
  • Citizens Mutual
  • Citizens Telephone Corporation
  • City of Hawarden HITEC
  • City Of Monroe
  • CityLink
  • Citynet
  • CL Tel
  • Clarence Telephone and Cedar Communications
  • Claro Puerto Rico
  • Clear Creek Communications
  • Click! Cable TV
  • CLT Communications
  • CML Telephone Cooperative Association
  • CNSNext
  • Co-Mo Connect
  • Coast Communications
  • Cobalt TV (Mid-State Community TV)
  • Columbia Power & Water Systems
  • Communications 1 Cablevision, Inc.
  • Community Cable & Broadband
  • commZoom
  • Complete Communication Services
  • Comporium
  • ComSouth Telesys
  • Consolidated
  • Consolidated Communications
  • Conway Corporation
  • Coon Rapids Municipal Utilities
  • Coon Valley Telecommunications Inc
  • Cooperative Telephone Company
  • Cooperative Telephone Exchange
  • Corn Belt Telephone
  • Country Cablevision, Inc.
  • Cox
  • Craw-Kan Telephone
  • Cross TV
  • Crosslake Communications
  • CTC - Brainerd MN
  • CTI Fiber
  • CTV-Beam - East Alabama
  • Cumberland Connect, LLC
  • Cunningham Telephone & Cable
  • D & P Communications
  • Dakota Central
  • Darien Communications
  • Delcambre Telephone LLC
  • DiamondNet
  • DISH
  • Docomo Pacific
  • Doylestown Cable TV
  • DRN
  • DTC
  • DTC Cable (Delhi)
  • Dumont Telephone Company
  • Dunkerton Telephone Cooperative
  • Duo Broadband
  • Eagle Communications
  • East Arkansas Cable TV
  • Easton Velocity
  • EATEL Video, LLC
  • EATEL Westside, LLC
  • ECTA
  • ElbertonNET
  • Elevate Internet
  • Emery Telcom Video LLC
  • Emily Cooperative Telephone Company
  • Empire Access
  • Endeavor Communications
  • Enhanced Telecommunications Corporation
  • enTouch
  • EPB Fiber Optics
  • EPB Smartnet
  • EPlus Broadband
  • ETC
  • Etex Communications
  • EZVideo
  • Farmers Cooperative Telephone Company
  • Farmers Mutual Telephone Company
  • Fayetteville Public Utilities
  • Fidelity Communications
  • FJ Communications
  • Flint River Communications
  • Foothills Communications
  • ForethoughtTV
  • Forsyth CableNet
  • Fort Collins Connexion
  • Frankfort Plant Board
  • Franklin Telephone Company
  • Frontier
  • FTC
  • Full Channel
  • Fusion Media
  • Garden Valley - GVTV
  • Gardonville Cooperative Telephone Association
  • GBT Communications, Inc.
  • GCI
  • Genuine Telecom
  • Giant Communications
  • Gibson Connect, LLC.
  • Glasgow EPB
  • GLW Broadband Inc.
  • Golden West Cablevision
  • Gorham Tel-Com
  • Grand Mound Cooperative Tel
  • Grande Communications
  • Grantsburg Telcom
  • Great Plains Communications
  • GreatWave Communications
  • Greenlight Community Broadband
  • Gridley Cable Inc
  • Griswold Communications
  • GTA
  • GTel
  • GTI TV
  • GVTC Communications
  • H&B Cable Services
  • Haefele Connect
  • Halstad Telephone Company
  • Hardy Telecommunications, Inc.
  • Harlan Municipal Utilities
  • Hart Communications
  • Hartelco TV
  • Hawaiian Telcom
  • Hawkeye Telephone Company
  • HBC
  • HCI-TV
  • Heart of Iowa Communications Cooperative
  • Hickory Telephone Company
  • Highland Communication Services
  • Highland Media
  • Hilliary Communications
  • Hinton CATV Co.
  • HomeTel Entertainment, Inc.
  • Hood Canal Communications
  • Hope - Prescott Cable TV
  • Horizon Cable TV, Inc.
  • Horizon Chillicothe Telephone
  • Hotwire
  • HTC Communications Co. - IL
  • Hulu
  • ImOn Communications
  • IMU Fiber
  • Independence Telecommunications
  • Industry I-Net
  • Inland Networks
  • Inside Connect Cable
  • Intelliwave Broadband
  • Inter Mountain Cable
  • Interstate Telecommunications Coop
  • Iron River Co-op TV
  • Irvine Cable
  • Jaguar Communications
  • Jefferson County Cable
  • Jefferson Telecom
  • Kalida Telephone Company, Inc.
  • Kaptel
  • Keystone Communications
  • KMTelecom
  • KPU Telecommunications
  • Kraus Cable
  • Kuhn Communications, Inc.
  • Lakeland Communications
  • Lavalle Telephone Cooperative, Inc.
  • Lehigh Valley Cooperative Telephone
  • LHTC Broadband
  • Liberty Cablevision of PR
  • Limestone Cable/Bracken Cable
  • Lincolnville Communications
  • Litestream
  • LocalTel Communications
  • Longview - Kilgore Cable TV
  • Lost Nation-Elwood Telephone Co.
  • LPC Connect
  • Lumos Networks
  • LUS Fiber
  • Lycom Communications
  • M2X Communications
  • Madison Communications
  • Madison County Cable Inc.
  • Mahaska Communication Group
  • Marne & Elk Horn Telephone Company
  • MaxxSouth Broadband
  • MCTV
  • Mechanicsville Telephone
  • Mediacom
  • MetroCast
  • Metronet
  • MHTC
  • Mid-Hudson Cable
  • Mid-Rivers Communications
  • Midco
  • Midstate Communications
  • Milford Communications
  • Minburn Communications
  • Minford TV
  • Mitchell Telecom
  • MLGC
  • Mon-Cre TVE
  • MontanaSky
  • Mountain Telephone
  • Mountain Village Cable
  • MTC Cable
  • MTC Communications/McDonough Telephone Coop
  • MTC Technologies
  • MTCC
  • MTCO Communications
  • Mulberry Telecommunications
  • Murray Electric System
  • MUS FiberNET
  • Muscatine Power & Water
  • Naicom
  • NCC
  • NDTC
  • Nebraska Central Telecom, Inc.
  • NEIT
  • Nelsonville TV Cable
  • Nemont
  • NEP Datavision
  • New Hope Telephone Cooperative
  • Newport Utilities
  • Nex-Tech
  • Nextgen Communications
  • NICP
  • NineStar Connect
  • NKTelco
  • NNTV
  • Nortex Communications
  • North Central Telephone Cooperative
  • North State
  • Northland Communications
  • NorthState TV
  • Northwest Communications
  • Norvado
  • Norwood Light Broadband
  • Nsight Telservices
  • Ntec
  • NuLink
  • Nuvera
  • NVC
  • OEC Fiber
  • Olin Telephone Company
  • OmniTel Communications
  • OneSource Communications
  • Oneida Telephone Exchange
  • Opelika Power Services
  • Opticaltel
  • OptiLink
  • Optimum
  • Orbitel Comm.
  • OTEC Communication Company
  • OzarksGo
  • Palmetto Rural Telephone Cooperative
  • Panora Telco/Guthrie Center Communications
  • Park Region Telephone & Otter Tail Telcom
  • Pathway
  • Penn Broadband
  • Paul Bunyan Communications
  • Pembroke Telephone Company
  • Peoples Rural Telephone Cooperative
  • PES Energize
  • Phonoscope Cable
  • Pine
  • Pine Belt Communications, Inc.
  • Pine Bluff Cable TV
  • Pineland Telephone Cooperative
  • Pinpoint Communications
  • Pioneer Broadband
  • Pioneer Communications
  • Pioneer DTV
  • Pioneer iVideo
  • Plant TiftNet, Inc.
  • Plateau Telecommunications
  • PLWC
  • PMT
  • Point Broadband
  • Polar Cablevision
  • Pottawatomie Telephone Co.
  • Premier Communications
  • PSC
  • QCOL
  • Quality Cablevision
  • Race Communications
  • Radcliffe Telephone Company
  • Rainier Connect
  • Ralls Technologies
  • RC Technologies
  • Red River Communications
  • Reedsburg Utility Commission
  • Reserve Telecommunications
  • Resort TV Cable
  • Richland Grant Telephone Cooperative, Inc.
  • Ritter Communications
  • River Valley Telecommunications Coop
  • Rock Port Cablevision
  • RS Fiber
  • RTC – Rye Telephone Company
  • RTC Communication Corp
  • RTC Digital Television
  • RTC-Reservation Telephone Coop.
  • RTEC Communications
  • S&T
  • San Bruno Cable TV
  • Sandhill
  • Santel
  • SC Telco
  • SCI Broadband-Savage Communications Inc.
  • Scottsboro Electric Power Board
  • Scranton Telephone Company
  • Service Electric Broadband Cable
  • Service Electric Cable TV and Communications
  • Service Electric Cablevision
  • Shentel
  • Sherwood Mutual Telephone Association, Inc.
  • Sister Lakes Cable
  • Sjoberg's Inc.
  • Skitter TV
  • Skitter TV - Galva
  • SkyBest TV
  • Sling TV
  • Solarus
  • South Central Rural Telephone Cooperative
  • South Slope Cooperative Communications
  • Spanish Fork Community Network
  • Sparklight
  • Spectrum
  • Spencer Municipal Utilities
  • Spruce Knob Seneca Rocks Telephone, Inc.
  • SRT
  • STaC-Tv
  • Stanley Cablevision
  • Star Communications
  • STC Hills
  • STE
  • St John Cable Company
  • STRATA Networks
  • Stratus IQ
  • Suddenlink
  • Summit Broadband
  • Sumner Cable TV
  • Surry TV/PCSI TV
  • Swayzee Communications
  • Swiftel Communications
  • Swyft Connect
  • Tahlequah Cable TV
  • TCT
  • TCT TV
  • TDS
  • TheaTV
  • The Community Agency
  • Three River
  • Trans-Video
  • Tri County Communications Cooperative
  • TrioTel Communications, Inc.
  • Troy Cablevision, Inc.
  • Tulalip Broadband
  • TSC
  • Tullahoma Utilities Authority
  • TVC Cable
  • Twin Lakes
  • Twin Valley
  • Union Telephone Company
  • United Communications - TN
  • United Communications / Turtle Mountain Communications
  • United Services
  • USA Communications
  • USA Communications/Shellsburg, IA
  • Valley Telecommunications
  • Valparaiso Broadband
  • ValuNet Fiber
  • Vast Broadband
  • Venture Communications Cooperative, Inc.
  • Venus Telephone Corp
  • Vernon Communications Co-op
  • Vexus
  • Vicksburg Video
  • Vision Communications
  • Viya St. Croix
  • Viya St. Thomas
  • VNET Fiber
  • Volcano Vision, Inc.
  • VolFirst / BLTV
  • VTel
  • Vyve Broadband
  • Wabash Communications Coop
  • Wabash Mutual Telephone
  • Waitsfield Cable
  • Waldron Communication Co.
  • Walnut Communications
  • watchTVeverywhere
  • Wave
  • WaveFly
  • Waverly Communications Utility
  • WBI
  • Webster-Calhoun Cooperative Telephone Association
  • Wellman Cooperative Telephone Association
  • West Carolina Communications
  • West Central Telephone Association
  • West River Cooperative Telephone Company
  • WesTel Systems
  • Western Iowa Networks
  • Wheat State Telephone
  • White County Cable TV
  • Wiatel
  • Wiktel
  • Williamstown Cable
  • Wilkes Communications, Inc./RiverStreet Networks
  • Wilson Communications
  • Windomnet/SMBS
  • Windstream Cable TV
  • Windstream Kinetic TV
  • Winnebago Cooperative Telecom Association
  • Wire Tele-View Corp
  • WOW!
  • WTC
  • WTC Communications, Inc.
  • Wyandotte Cable
  • Wyoming Mutual Telephone Company
  • XIT Communications
  • Yadtel Telecom
  • Yelcot Communications
  • yondoo
  • Youngsville Television Corporation
  • Ziply Fiber
  • Zito Media


Even if your provider supports signing in with TV Provider Authentication, you might need to open and sign in to some of them individually.



Information about products not manufactured by Apple, or independent websites not controlled or tested by Apple, is provided without recommendation or endorsement. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the selection, performance, or use of third-party websites or products. Apple makes no representations regarding third-party website accuracy or reliability. Contact the vendor for additional information.

Published Date: 
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